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Pilot' p-ctchinj: fmm an oM print 


Secret History of the 
Court of England «^ 

From the Accession of George the Third to 
the Death of George the Fourth; including, 
among other Important Matters, Full Par- 
ticulars of the Mysterious Death of the 
Princess Charlotte J* J* j* > 

By the Right Honourable 

Lady Anne Hamilton 

Sister of His Grace the Duke of Hamilton and 
Brandon ; and of ihe Counicis of Dunmore 

kd boldlylinnd Mch pnidEt(irB ul }in t 

llybnnd m 

In Two Volumes — Volume 
ff'itb Jilus. 

Boston Ji J^ J^ Ji Jt 
L. C. Page & Company 
j» J* j» MDCCCC'l 

Copyright^ jgot 
By L. C. Page & Company 


All rights reserved 

Colonfal ^rng 
EloctTOtyped and Printed by C. H. Slroonds & Co. 
Boston, Mass.. U.S.A. 





The source from whence this work proceeds 
will be a sufficient guarantee for the facts it con- 
tains. A high sense of duty and honour has 
prompted these details which have for many years 
been on the eve of publication. It will be worthy 
of the perusal of the great because it will serve 
as a mirror, and they who do not see themselves, 
or their actions reflected, will not take offence at 
the unvarnished picture ; it may afford real bene- 
fit to the statesman and politician, by the ample 
testimony it gives, that when justice is perverted 
the most lamentable consequences ensue ; and to 
that class of society whose station is more humble 
it may unfold the designing characters by whom 
they have so frequently been deceived. They 
only are competent to detail the scenes and in- 
trigues of a court who have been most intimately 
acquainted with it, and it must at all times be 
acknowledged that it is a climate not very condu- 
cive to the growth of virtue, not very frequently 
the abode of truth — yet although its atmosphere 
is so tainted, its giddy crowd is thought enviably 
happy. The fallacy of such opinions is here set 
forth to public view by one who has spent much 

i i: 


of her time in the interior of a court, and whose 
immediate knowledge of the then passing events 
gives ability to narrate them faithfully. Many, 
very many facts are here omitted, which hereafter 
shall appear, and there is little doubt but that 
some general good may result from an unpreju- 
diced and calm perusal of the subjects subjoined. 



How far the law of libel (as it now stands) may 
afifect is best to be ascertained by a reference to 
the declaration of Lord Abingdon, in 1779, and 

i inserted, verbatim, at page 49, first volume of this 

"Secret History." The following pages are in- 
tended as a benefit, not to do injury. If the facts 
could not have been maintained proper methods 

I ought to have been adopted to have caused the 

most minute inquiry and investigation upon the 
subject. Many an arrow has been shot, and in- 
numerable suspicions entertained from what motive 
and by whose hand the bow was drawn, yet here 

j all mystery ceases and an open avowal is made. 

Would to Heaven for the honour of human nature 
that the subjoined documents were falsehoods and 
calumniations invented for the purpose of malign- 

i ing character, or for personal resentments ; but 

i the unusual corroboration of events, places, times, 

and persons will not admit the probability. In 
the affair of the ever lamented death of the Prin- 
cess Charlotte, the three important letters com- 
mencing at page 15, volume second, are of essential 

' importance, and deserve the most grave and delib- 



erate inquiry — for the first time they now appear 
in print. The subjects connected with the royal 
mother are also of deep interest. The conduct of 
the English government toward Napoleon is intro- 
duced to give a true and impartial view of the 
reasons which dictated such arbitrary and unjust 
measures enforced against that great man, and 
which will ever remain a blot upon the British 
nation. These unhandsome derelictions from hon- 
ourable conduct could alone be expressed by those 
who were well informed upon private subjects. 
Respect for the illustrious dead has materially 
encouraged the inclination to give publicity to 
scenes, which were as revolting in themselves as 
they were cruel and most heartrending to the 
victims ; throughout the whole, it is quite apparent 
that certain persons were obnoxious to the ruling 
authorities, and the sequel will prove that the 
extinction of such persons was resolved upon, let 
the means and measures to obtain that object be 
what they might. During this period we find 
those who had long been opposed in political sen- 
timents to all appearance perfectly reconciled, and 
adhering to that party from whom they might 
expect the greatest honours and advancement in 
the state. We need only refer as proofs for this 
to the late Spencer Perceval, and George Can- 
ning, who, to obtain preferment, joined the con- 
federations formed against an unprotected princess, 
and yet who previously had been the most strenu- 


ous defenders of the same lady's cause. Well may 
it be observed that vanity is too powerful, — 

<< The seals of office glitter in their eyes, 
They leave the truth, and by their falsehoods rise.*' 

These remarks are not intended as any dispar- 
agement to the private characters or virtues of 
those statesmen whose talent was great and well 
cultivated, but to establish the position which it is 
the object of this work to show, that justice has 
not been fairly and impartially administered when 
the requirement was in opposition to the royal 
wish or the administration. 

Within these volumes will also be found urgent 
remonstrances against the indignities ofifered to 
the people of Ireland, whose forbearance has been 
great and whose sorrows are without a parallel, 
and who merit the same regard as England and 
Scotland. Much is omitted relative to the private 
conduct of persons who occupy high stations, but 
should it be needful it shall be published, and all 
the correspondence connected therewith. It is 
true much honour will not be derived from such 
explanations, but they are forthcoming if requisite. 

The generality of readers will not criticise se- 
verely upon the diction of these prefatory remarks ; 
they will rather have their attention turned to the 
truths submitted to them, and the end in view, — 
that end is for the advancement of the best inter- 
ests of society, — to imite more closely each mem- 


ber in the bonds of friendship and amity, and to 
expose the hidden causes which for so long a 
period have been barriers to concord, unity, and 






A Truthful Narrative — The Passion of a Prince — A Secret 
Marriage — Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz — An Ill- 
mated Pair — Lord Chatham in Disguise — The Civil 
List — War and Peace — A Christening and a Naval Vic- 
tory — Toryism — Birth of Frederick, Duke of York — 
Poland I 


Mr. Wilkes Is Tried — Prize-money — Female Tyranny — 
Enormous Supplies — The Death of a Generous Duke — 
Secret-service Money — Four-pence per Day — A Real 
Father to His Subjects — The Curse of the Royal Bom 

— Mis-spent Funds — Lord North — Letters of Junius 

— Doctor Wilmot — Anonymous Letters — Convincing 
Proof 13 


Tyranny — Printers and the Proceedings of Parliament — 
The King Outwitted — The "Thirty-nine Articles" 

— Parliamentary Bickerings — East India Company — 
The Earl of Chatham and the King — Commercial Credit 

— Death of a Debauchee — The American Revolution — 
Heavy Taxation — An Unhappy Condition of Affairs 

— German Despotism — Cowardly Inactivity . • 29 





French Assistance in America — Lord Chatham the Cham- 
pion — Ribbons and Garters — Burke vs. North — The 
Great Lord Abingdon — Riots — Defeat at Yorktown — 
A Political Coalition — Princely Pleasures — "The Sys- 
tem " — Irish Prosecutions — The Prince and Mrs. Fitz- 
herbert — A Heated Debate — The Prince Again — 
Splendid Fetes 43 


The King's Health Declines — An Enviable Position — De- 
feated Air-drawn Schemes — Burke and Fox — A Large 
Salary — Misfortunes of the Royal Bom — National Debt 

— Slavery and Debate — Parliamentary Introduction — 
Twenty Millions — Newgate Ruffians — A Degenerate 
Prince — Vivacious Acquiescence — A Refractory Epistle 

— More Correspondence — Queenly Cares . . • 73 


The Influence of Secrecy — A Ministerial Despot — Prin- 
cess Caroline to Prince George — Preparations for the 
Marriage — A Princess Suffers — Debauchery — "A Fine 
Giri" — A Disastrous War — "Truth Forbids Silence" 

— Machinations against the Princess — Ireland — Still 
Further Taxation — " The PUot that Weathered the 
Storm" — An Increase in Income — Disproportionate 
Incomes 96 


The King Indisposed — Pitt Assumes the Governmental 
Reins — Buonaparte's Invasion — Death of Mr. Pitt — 
His Character — Charles James Fox — Plots against the 
Princess — Duke of Brunswick — Ministerial Charges 

— A Duchess Visits England — Etiquette — The Pen- 


sion List — Oppression of the Masses — Speculations in 
Stocks — Doctor Randolph's Disclosures — Hush Money 121 


Queen Charlotte's Ungenerosity — A Royal Creditor — 
His Family Left Beggars — A Duel — Division in the 
Royal Family — ScandcUutn Magnatum — Abuse of a 
Murdered Man — An Affidavit — An Assassin Not 
Recognised — A Witness Testifies — People Who See in 
the Dark — Telltale Slippers — A Great Villain — Ques- 
tionable Evidence — A Man His Own Murderer — The 
Supposed Murderer in High Favour — " Good God I Mr. 
Sellis Has Cut His Throat ! *' 141 


More Evidence — The Position of a Razor — The Morning 
Posfs Omission — Character of the Deceased — A Ver- 
dict Felo de se — A Housemaid*s Testimony — Servant's 
Dislike — " Oh, Talented Man I " — A Model Husband — 
That He Who Runs May Read — Public Dissatisfaction 
— "The Palace and Not the PublicI" — A Ridiculous 
Observation — Contradictory Evidence . . .164 


A Deposition — A Bloody Sword — "A Horrific Scene" — 
The Jury Dissatisfied — "(Signed) Jew" — A Lawyer- 
like Proceeding — The Deponent Speaks — A Jumble of 
Words — An Illegal Inquest — Affidavits from Interested 
Persons — Impartial Information — A King Childish and 
Blind — The Prince Is Regent — A Dbgraced Duke as 
Commander-in-Chief 184 


Private Epistles — The Accomplished Doctor Nott — A 
Rebellious Daughter — Unbending in Disposition — The 


Princess Makes Her Will — The Dead Recovered — Mr. 
Perceval Intervenes — Lord Wellington in i8x2 — The 
Queen Receives More Money — An Assassination — 
Defence of the Character of a Princess — Unmerited 
Sufferings — Sovereignty, a Blasting Privilege — One 
Hundred Thousand Pounds for Legal Slaughter — The 
Slave of a Haughty Prince — Attempted Divorce . • 205 


An Interview with the Queen — An Argumentative Scene— 
Caroline Is Insulted — The Royal Duke Speaks — An 
Opposite Effect to That Intended — A Determined Re- 
joinder — Resentful Disposition of the Queen — A Letter 
to the Prince — Wifely Rebellion — Base Innuendos — 
Mr. C. Johnstone's Motion — The "Suborned Tn^ 
ducers" — Death of the Duchess of Brunswick — A 
Letter from the Princess — Insult Added to Injury — 
The Visit of Mr. Pitt — Important Papers — An Outrage 
against Honour — A Notorious Secretary . • . 222 


M'Mahon Makes a Journey — And Conceives a Villainous 
Plot — The Protector of Innocence Is Removed — An 
Outrage Is Perpetrated — A Personal Opinion — 1814 — 
Her Majesty, a Tyrant — A Life of Continued Misfortune 
— Princely Mbbehaviour — Further Persecution of the 
Princess — An Invention — Honours, Ffites, and Festi- 
vals — Lord Castlereagh's Motion — A Separation — A 
Motherly Epistle — The King Promises Protection — 
Dazzling Entertainments — Princess Charlotte's Unhap- 
piness — The King's Health 243 


An Unpleasant Situation — A Hopeful Son Goes Wrong 
Matrimonially — A Grant Debated — Whitbread's Sui- 
cide — The Birth of Tory Aristocracy — Another Royal 



Marriage — English Generosity — Charlotte and Leopold 
— ''The Augsburgh Gazettes" — Distressing State of 
the Country — Death of Richard Brinsley Sheridan-— 
His Relations to the Prince — The Rejuvenation of Mrs. 
Fitzherbert — Plots against Princess Charlotte — A 
Hanoverian Baron as a Spy — He Is Challenged to a 
Duel — A Footman's Confession — Preparations — An- 
other Plot — Popularity of Princess Charlotte — Sitiiap 
tion of the Nation 262 


The Queen Indisposed — Princess Charlotte and the People 
— The Days of Chivalry Unfortunately Are Past — 
Power Disguised as Piety — Death of the Princess — The 
News Spread Abroad — Irritable Remarks — The Waters 
of Bath — Bulletin of a Last Sickness — Doctor Sims — 
The Public Journals Demand an Investigation — A Let- 
ter Causes Trouble — Medical Critidsm — The Queen 
Grants an Interview — An Interesting Conversation — A 
Wielder of the Two-edged Sword of Truth .286 


A Royal Visit — A Burial — Mrs. Griffiths's Secret — A 
Poisoned Cup — A Lieutenant's Wife Intervenes — Re- 
sultant — A Spy — An Investigation at Milan — 1818 
and Taxation — Parliament Opens — The Words of 
Tartuffe — Horses for a Phantom Driver — Another 
Violent Death — Due to " Temporary Derangement " — 
Lord Bloomfield — The Duke of Kent Is Married — 
Queen Charlotte at Death's Door — A False and In- 
consistent Eulogium — Burial 305 


A Queen without Virtues — The Assassination of Edward, 
Duke of York — The Hounds at Taplow Heath — An 



Unhappy Life — Serious Questionings — An Ill-fated 
Son — Forced into the Church — Proof Founded upon 
the Principle of Truth — Chicanery — Dictatorial Con- 
duct of Queen Charlotte Explained — Her Character — 
The Duke of York and a Soft Position — Death of 
George the Third — Unpleasant Inquiries Are Sup- 
pressed — The King Can Do No Wrong 1 — A Coura- 
geous Princess — The Fortunes of Accusers . . . 324 


The Chancellor of the Exchequer's Plan — Seditious Spirit 
— A Mob Is Trampled under Foot — Lord Sidmouth — 
Mr. Bell and His Accomplices — The Poetry of a Re- 
pentant King — No Charter to Privilege Murder — Killed 
and Wounded — A Speech before Parliament — Where 
Were the Principal Officers of State? — An Appeal for 
Long Delayed Justice — Bound in Honour — Political 
Sentiments — The Duke of Kent Dies — History Set 
Right— :" The Cato Street Conspiracy"— Five Martyn 
Suffer as Traitors 342 


Resignation of Mr. Canning — His Public Career — Mr. 
Brougham and the Queen — Request for a Frigate — 
Paris or Calais — The Queen Dines — A Courier to Paris 
— The Progress of Her Majesty — Entry into London — 
Prince Leopold Tends His Respects — Damning Corres- 
pondence — Hisses by the Multitude — Right and Justice 
the Shield of England's Queen — ^ Bill of Pains and Pen- 
alties " — Brandenburgh House — Unhospitable Treat- 
ment — A Letter to Windsor — Sapient Speech of a 
Most Sapient Lord — A Despicable Man • • . 366 





Lady Anne Hamilton .... Frontispiece 

Charlbs Jambs Fox 59 

Caroline Amblia Elizabeth, Princess of 

Wales 102 

William Pitt 124 

Charlotte Augusta, Princess of Wales . 202 

Robert Stewart, Lord Viscount Castlereagh 249 

Charlotte, Queen of England .... 302 

Frederick, Duke op York 330 




A Trathful Narrative — The Passion of a Prince — A Secret 
Marriage — Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz — An Ill-mated 
Pair — Lord Chatham in Disguise — The Civil List— War 
and Peace — A Christening and a Naval Victory — Toryism 
— Birth of Frederick, Duke of York — Poland. 

|HE secret history of the Court of Eng- 
land, during the last two reigns, will 
afford the reflecting mind abundant 
matter for regret and abhorrence. It has, how- 
ever, been so much the fashion for historians to 
spe^ of kings and their ministers in all the ful- 
some terms of flattery, that the inquirer frequently 
finds it a matter of great difficulty to arrive at 
truth. But, fearless of consequences, we will speak 
of facts as they really occurred, and only hope our 
readers will accompany us in the recital with feel- 
ings un warped by party prejudice, and with a 
determination to judge the actions of king^, lords, 
and commons, not as beings of a superior order, 
but as men. Minds thus constituted will have 


little difficulty in tracing the origin of our present 
evils, or of perceiving — 

<* How many that command should be commanded ! " 

We commence with the year 1761, about which 
period George the Third was pressed by his min- 
isters to make choice of some royal lady, and 
demand her in marriage. They urged this under 
the pretext that such a connection was indispen- 
sably necessary to give stability to the monarchy, 
to assist the progressive improvements in morality 
and religion, and to benefit all artificers, by making 
a display at court of their ingenious productions. 
His Majesty heard the proposal with an aching 
heart ; and, to many of his ministers, he seemed 
as if labouring under bodily indisposition. Those 
persons, however, who were in the immediate con- 
fidence of the king, felt no surprise at the distress- 
ing change so apparent in the countenance of his 
Majesty, the cause of which may be traced in the 
following particulars : 

The unhappy sovereign, while Prince of Wales, 
was in the daily habit of passing through St. 
James's Street, and its immediate vicinity. In one 
of his favourite rides through that part of town, he 
saw a very engaging young lady, who appeared, 
by her dress, to be a member of the Society of 
Friends. The prince was much struck by the 
delicacy and lovely appearance of this female, and, 
for several succeeding days, was observed to walk 


out alone. At length, the passion of his Royal 
Highness arrived at such a point that he felt his 
happiness depended upon receiving the lady in 

Every individual in his immediate circle, or in 
the list of the Privy Council, was very narrowly 
questioned by the prince, though in an indirect 
manner, to ascertain who was most to be trusted, 
that he might secure, honourably, the possession 
of the object of his ardent wishes. His Royal 
Highness, at last, confided his views to his next 
brother, Edward, Duke of York, and another per- 
son, who were the only witnesses to the legal 
I marriage of the Prince of Wales to the before- 

mentioned lady, Hannah Lightfoot, which took 
place at Curzon Street Chapel, May Fair, in the 
year 1759. 

This marriage was productive of issue, the par- 
ticulars of which, however, we pass over for the 
present, and only look to the results of the union. 

Shortly after the prince came to the throne, by 
the title of George the Third, ministers became 
suspicious of his marriage with the Quakeress. At 
length they were informed of the important fact, 
and immediately determined to annul it. After 
innumerable schemes how they might best attain 
this end, and thereby frustrate the king's wishes, 
they devised the " Royal Marriage Att," by which 
every prince or princess of the blood might not 
marry or intermarry with any person of less de- 


gree. This act, however, was not passed till thir- 
teen years after George the Third's union with 
Miss Lightfoot, and therefore it could not render 
such marriage illegal. 

From the moment the ministry became aware 
of his Majesty's alliance to the lady just named, 
they took possession of their watch-tower, and 
determined that the new sovereign should hence- 
forth do even as their will dictated, while the 
unsuspecting mind of George the Third was eas- 
ily beguiled into their specious devices. In the 
absence of the king's beloved brother, Edward, 
Duke of York (who was then abroad for a short 
period), his Majesty was assured by his ministers 
that no cognisance would be taken at any time of 
his late unfortunate amour and marriage ; and per- 
suaded him that the only stability he could give to 
his throne was demanding the hand of the Princess 
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Every needful 
letter and paper for the negotiation was speedily 
prepared for the king's signature, which, in due 
course, each received ; and thus was the foundation 
laid for this ill-fated prince's future malady ! 

Who can reflect upon the blighted first love of 
this monarch, without experiencing feelings of pity 
for his early sorrows ! With his domestic habits, 
had he only been allowed to live with the wife of 
his choice, his reign might have passed in harmony 
and peace, and the English people now been afflu- 
ent, happy, and contented. Instead of which, his 


unfeeling ministers compelled him to marry one of 
the most selfish, vindictive, and tyrannical women 
that ever disgraced human nature ! At the first 
sight of the German princess, the king actually 
shrunk from her gaze ; for her countenance was of 
that cast that too plainly told of the nature of the 
spirit working within. 

On the 1 8th of September, the king was obliged 
to subscribe to the formal ceremony of a marriage 
with the before-named lady, at the palace of St. 
James. His Majesty's brother, Edward, who was 
one of the witnesses to the king's first marriage 
with Miss Lightf oot, was now also present, and 
used every endeavour to support his royal brother 
through the "trying ordeal," not only by first 
meeting the princess on her entrance into the 
garden, but also at the altar. 

In the meantime, the Earl of Abercom informed 
the princess of the previous marriage of the king, 
and of the then existence of his Majesty's wife ; 
and Lord Harcourt advised the princess to well 
inform herself of the policy of the kingdoms, as a 
measure for preventing much future disturbance 
in the country as well as securing an uninterrupted 
possession of the throne to her issue. Presuming, 
therefore, that this German princess had hitherto 
been an open and ingenuous character (which are 
certainly traits very rarely to be found in the mind 
of a German of her grade), such expositions, inti- 
mations, and dark mysteries were ill calculated to 


nourish honourable feelings, but would rather oper- 
ate as a check to their further existence. 

To the public eye, the newly married pair were 
contented with each other; alas! it was because 
•each feared an exposure to the nation. The king 
reproached himself that he had not fearlessly 
avowed the only wife of his affections ; the queen, 
because she feared an explanation that the king 
was guilty of bigamy, and thereby her claim, as 
also that of her progeny (if she should have any), 
would be known to be illegitimate. It appears as 
if the result of these reflections formed a basis for 
the misery of millions, and added to that num- 
ber millions then unborn. The secret marriage 
of the king proved a pivot, on which the destiny of 
kingdoms was to turn. 

At this period of increased anxiety to his Maj- 
esty, Miss Lightfoot was disposed of during a 
temporary absence of his brother Edward, and 
from that time no satisfactory tidings ever reached 
those most interested in her welfare. The only 
information that could be obtained was, that a 
young gentleman, named Axford, was offered a 
large amount, to be paid on the consummation of 
his marriage with Miss Lightfoot, which offer he 
willingly accepted. 

The king was greatly distressed to ascertain the 
fate of his much beloved and legally married wife, 
the Quakeress, and entrusted Lord Chatham to go 
in disguise and endeavour to trace her abode ; but 


the search proving fruitless, the king was again 
almost distracted. 

Every one in the queen's confidence was ex- 
pected to make any personal sacrifice of feeling 
whenever her Majesty might require it ; and, con- 
sequently, new emoluments, honours, and posts of 
dignity were continually needful for the preser- 
vation of such unnatural friendships. From this 
period, new creations of peers were enrolled ; 
and, as it became expedient to increase the num- 
ber of the "privy cabal," the nation was freely 
called upon, by extra taxation and oppressive bur- 
dens of various kinds, to supply the necessary 
means to support this vile system of bribery and 
misrule ! 

We have dwelt upon this important period, be- 
cause we wish our countrymen to see the origin 
of our overgrown national debt, — the real cause of 
England's present wretchedness. 

The coronation of their Majesties passed over, a 
few days after their marriage, without any remark- 
able feature, save that of an additional expense to 
the nation. The queen generally appeared at ease, 
though she seized upon every possible occasion to 
slight all persons from whom she feared any state 
explanation, which might prove inimical to her 
wishes. The wily queen thought this would eflfec- 
tually prevent their frequent appearance at court, 
as well as cause their banishment from the council- 


A bill was passed this year to fix the civil list at 
the annual sum of eight hundred thousand pounds, 
payable out of the consolidated fund, in lieu of 
the hereditary revenue, settled on the late king. 

Another act passed, introduced to Parliament by 
a speech from the throne, for the declared purpose 
of giving additional security to the independence of 
the judges. Although there was a law then in 
force, passed in the reign of William the Third, 
for continuing the commissions of judges during 
their good behaviour, they were legally determined 
on the death of the reigning sovereign. By this 
act, however, their continuance in office was made 
independent of the royal demise. 

Twelve millions of money were raised by loans 
this year, and the interest thereon agreed to be 
paid by an additional duty of three shillings per 
barrel on all strong beer or ale, — the sinking fund 
being a collateral security. The imposition of this 
tax was received by the people as it deserved to 
be ; for every labourer and mechanic severally felt 
himself insulted by so oppressive an act. 

The year 1762 was ushered in by the hoarse 
clarion of war. England declared against Spain, 
while France and Spain became opposed to Portu- 
gal, on account of her alliance with Great Britain. 
These hostilities, however, were not of long dura- 
tion ; for preliminaries of peace were signed, before 
the conclusion of the year, by the English and 
French plenipotentiaries at Fontainebleau. 


By this treaty, the original cause of the war was 
removed by the cession of Canada to England. 
This advantage, if advantage it may be called, cost 
this country eighteen millions of money, besides 
the loss of three hundred thousand men 1 Every 
friend of humanity must shudder at so wanton 
a sacrifice of life, and so prodigious an expen- 
diture of the public money! But this was only 
the commencement of the reign of imbecility and 

On the 1 2th of August, her Majesty was safely 
delivered of a prince. Court etiquette requires 
numerous witnesses of the birth of an heir-appar- 
ent to the British throne. On this occasion, how- 
ever, her Majesty's extraordinary delicacy dispensed 
with a strict adherence to the forms of state ; for 
only the Archbishop of Canterbury was allowed to 
be in the room. But there were more powerful 
reasons than delicacy for this unusual privacy, 
which will hereafter appear. 

On the 1 8th of September following, the cere- 
mony of christening the royal infant was per- 
formed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, in the 
great council-chamber of his Majesty's palace, and 
the young prince was named George Augustus 

In this year, the city of Havana surrendered 
to the English, whose troops were commanded by 
Lord Albermarle and Admiral Pococke. Nine 
sail of the line and four frigates were taken in the 



harbour; three of the line had been previously 
sunk by the enemy, and two were destroyed on 
the stocks. The plunder in money and merchan- 
dise was supposed to have amounted to three mil- 
lions sterling, while the sum raised by the land 
tax, at four shillings in the pound, from 1756 
to 1760 inclusive, also produced ten millions of 
money! But to what purpose this amount was 
devoted remained a profound secret to those from 
whom it was extorted. 

In the November of this year, the famous Peter 
Annet was sentenced by the Court of King's Bench 
to be imprisoned one month, to stand twice in the 
pillory within that time, and afterward to be kept 
to hard labour in Bridewell for a year. The reader 
may feel surprised when informed that all the 
enormity this man had been guilty of consisted in 
nothing more than writing the truth of the gov- 
ernment, which was published in his Free Inquirer, 
The unmerited punishment, however, had only this 
effect : it made him glory in suffering for the 
cause of liberty and truth. The year 1763 was 
a continuation of the misrule which characterised 
the preceding year. 

In May, Lord Bute resigned the office of first 
lord of the treasury, and the conduct of the earl 
became a question of much astonishment and criti- 
cism. He was the foundation-stone of Toryism, 
in its most arbitrary form ; and there cannot be a 
doubt that his lordship's influence over the state 


machinery was the keystone of all the mischiefs 
and miseries of the nation. It was Lord Bute's 
opinion that all things should be made subser- 
vient to the queen, and he framed his measures 

The earl was succeeded by Mr. George Gren- 
ville. Little alteration for the better, however, 
was manifested in the administration, although the 
characters and principles of the new ministers 
were supposed to be of a liberal description ; but 
this may possibly be accounted for by the Earls 
of Halifax and Egremont continuing to be the 
secretaries of state. 

In this memorable year, the celebrated John 
Wilkes, editor of The North Briton^ was committed 
to the Tower, for an excellent, though biting, criti- 
cism on his Majesty's speech to the two houses of 
Parliament. The queen vigorously promoted this 
imconstitutional and tyrannical act of the new gov- 
ernment, which was severely censured by many 
members of the House of Commons. Among the 
rest, Mr. Pitt considered the act as an infringe- 
ment upon the rights of the people ; and, although 
he condemned the libel, he said he would come 
at the author fairly, — not by an open breach of 
the constitution, and a contempt of all restraint. 
Wilkes, however, came oflf triumphantly, and his 
victory was hailed with delight by his gratified 

In the midst of this public agitation, the queen. 


on the 1 6th of August, burdened the nation with 
her second son, Frederick, afterward created Duke 
of York, Bishop of Osnaburgh, and many other et 
ceteras, which produced a good round sum, and, 
we should think, more than sufficient to support 
this Right Reverend Father in God, at the age of 
— eleven months ! 

Colonel Gr6me, who had been chiefly instrumen- 
tal in bringing about the marriage of the Princess 
Charlotte of Mecklenburg with the King of Eng- 
land, was this year appointed Master of St. Cath- 
erine, near the Tower, an excellent sinecure in the 
peculiar gift of the queen 1 

The most important public event on the Conti- 
nent was the death of Augustus, third King of 
Poland, and Elector of Saxony, who had lately 
returned to his electoral dominions, from which he 
had been banished for six years, in consequence of 
the war. Immediately after his demise, his eldest 
son and successor to the electorate declared him- 
self a candidate for the crown of Poland, in which 
ambition he was supposed to be countenanced by 
the Court of Vienna ; but he fell a victim to the 
smallpox, a few weeks after his father's death. 


Mr. Wilkes Is Tried — Prize-money — Female Tyranny — 
Enormous Supplies — The Death of a Generous Duke — 
Secret-service Money — Four-pence per Day — A Real 
Father to His Subjects — The Curse of the Royal Bom — 
Mis-spent Funds — Lord North — Letters of Junius — Doc- 
tor Wilmot — Anonjrmous Letters — Convincing Proof. 

URING the year 1764 much public 
anxiety and disquietude was manifested. 
Mr. Wilkes again appeared before a pub- 
lic tribunal for publishing opinions not in accord- 
ance with the reigning powers. The House of 
Commons sat so early as seven o'clock in the 
morning to consider his case, and the Speaker 
actually remained in the chair for twenty hours, 
so important was the matter considered. 

About the end of this year, the king became 
much indisposed, and exhibited the first signs of 
that mental aberration which, in after years, so 
heavily afflicted him. The nation, in general, sup- 
posed this to have arisen from his Majesty's anx- 
iety upon the fearful aspect of affairs, which was 
then of the most gloomy nature, both at home and 
abroad. Little, indeed, did the multitudes imagine 
the real cause; little did the private gentleman, 
the industrious tradesman, the worthy mechanic, 




or the labourer, think that their sovereign was 
living in splendid misery, bereft of the dearest 
object of his solicitude, and compelled to associate 
with the woman he all but detested 1 

Nature had not formed George the Third for a 
king ; she had not been profuse to him either in 
elegance of manners, or capacity of mind ; but he 
seemed more fitted to shine in a domestic circle, 
where his affections were centred, and in that 
sphere only. But, with all hereditary monarch- 
ies, an incompetent person has the same claim as 
a man adorned with every requisite and desirable 
ability ! 

In this year, Lord Albermarle received twenty 
thousand pounds as his share in the Havana 
prize-money ; while one pound, two shillings, and 
six pence was thought sufficient for a corporal, and 
thirteen shillings and five pence for a private! 
How far this disbursement was consistent with 
equity, we leave every honest member of society 
to determine. 

In December a most excellent edict was reg- 
istered in the Parliament of Paris, by which the 
King of France abolished the society of Jesuits 
for ever. 

Early in the year 1765, the queen was press- 
ingly anxious that her marriage with the king 
should again be solemnised ; and, as the queen 
was then pregnant, his Majesty readily acquiesced 
in her wishes. Doctor Wilmot, by his Majesty's 


appointment, performed the ceremony at their 
palace at Kew. The king's brother, Edward, was 
present upon this occasion also, as he had been 
on the two former ones. 

Under the peculiar distractions of this year, it 
was supposed the mind of the sovereign was again 
disturbed. To prevent a recurrence of such in- 
terruptions to the royal authority, a law was 
passed, empowering his Majesty to appoint the 
queen, or other member of the royal family, 
assisted by a council, to act as regent of the king- 
dom. Although his Majesty's blank of intellect 
was but of short duration, it proved of essential 
injury to the people generally. The tyrannical 
queen, presuming on the authority of this bill, 
exercised the most unlimited sway over national 
affairs. She supplied her own requirements and 
opinions, in unison with her trusty-bought clan, 
who made it apparent that these suggestions were 
offered by the king, and were his settled opinions, 
upon the most deliberate investigation of all mat- 
ters and things connected therewith ! 

During the king's indisposition, he was most 
passionate in his requests that the wife of his 
choice should be brought to him. The queen, 
judging her influence might be of much conse- 
quence to quell the perturbation of her husband's 
mind, was, agreeably to her own request, admitted 
to the solitary apartment of the king. It is true 
he recognised her, but it was followed by extreme 


expressions of disappointment and disgust ! The 
queen was well acquainted with all subjects con- 
nected with his Majesty's unfortunate passion and 
marriage; therefore, she thought it prudent to 
stifle expressions of anger or sorrow, and, as 
soon as decency permitted, left the place, resolving 
thenceforth to manage the helm herself. 

On the 31st of October, his Majesty's uncle, 
the Duke of Cumberland, died suddenly at his 
house in Upper Grosvenor Street, in the forty- 
fifth year of his age ; and on the 28th of Decem- 
ber, his Majesty's youngest brother, Prince Fred- 
erick William, also expired, in the sixteenth year 
of his age. 

On December ist, 1766, his Majesty's sister, 
Matilda, was married to the King of Denmark, 
and the Duke of York was proxy on the occasion. 
Soon afterward his Royal Highness took leave 
of his brother, and set out on a projected tour 
through Germany and other parts of the Continent. 
The queen was most happy to say "Adieu," and, 
for the first time, felt something like ease on his 

The supplies gfranted for the service of this 
year, although the people were in the most dis- 
tressed state, amounted to eight millions, two 
hundred and seventy-three thousand, two hundred 
and eighty pounds ! 

In the year 1767, the noble-minded and gener- 
ous Duke of York was married to a descendant 


of the Stuarts, an amiable and cx>nciliating lady, 
not only wiUing, but anxious^ to live without the 
splendour of royal parade, and desirous also of 
evading the flatteries and falsehoods of a court. 

In August the duke lived very retired in a 
ch&teau near Monaco, in Italy, blessed and happy 
in the society of his wife. She was then advanc- 
ing in pregnancy, and his solicitude for her was 
sufficient to have deeply interested a heart less 
susceptible than her own. Their marriage was 
kept from pubUc declaration, but we shall refer to 
the proofs hereafter. In the ensuing month it was 
announced that (17th September) the duke "died 
of a malignant fever,'* in the twenty-ninth year of 
his age, and the news was immediately communi- 
cated to the King of England. The body was 
said to be embalmed, (?) and then put on board 
his Majesty's ship Montreal^ to be brought to Eng- 
land. His Royal Highness was interred on the 
evening of November 3d, in the royal vault of 
King Henry the Seventh's Chapel. 

The fate of the duke's unfortunate and incon- 
solable widow, and that of the infant, to whom she 
soon after gave birth, must be reserved for its 
appropriate place in this history. 

The high price of provisions this year occasioned 
much distress and discontent, and excited tumults 
in various parts of the kingdom. Notwithstanding 
this, ministers attempted to retain every tax that 
had been imposed during the late war, and ap- 


peared perfectly callous to the sufiFerings of the 
productive classed. Even the land tax, of four 
shillings in the pound, was attempted to be con- 
tinued, though contrary to all former custom ; but 
the country gentlemen became impatient of this 
innovation, and contrived to get a bill introduced 
into the House of Commons, to reduce it to three 
shillings in the pound. This was carried by a 
great majority, in spite of all the efforts of the 
ministry to the contrary ! The defeat of the min- 
isters caused a great sensation at the time, as it 
was the first money bill in which any ministry had 
been disappointed since the revolution of 1688! 
But what can any ministers do against the wishes 
of a determined people ? If the horse knew his 
own strength, would he submit to the dictation 
of his rider? 

On account of the above bill being thrown out, 
ministers had considerable difficulty in raising the 
necessary supplies for the year, which were esti- 
mated at eight millions and a half, including, we 
suppose, secret service money, which was now in 
great demand. 

The king experienced a fluctuating state of 
health, sometimes improving, again retrograding, 
up to the year 1768. In his speech, in the No- 
vember of this year, his Majesty announced that 
much disturbance had been exhibited in some of 
the colonies, and a disposition manifested to throw 
aside their dependence upon Great Britain. Ow- 


ing to this circumstance, a new office was created, 
under the name of "Secretary of State for the 
Colonies," and to which the Earl of Hillsborough 
was appointed. 

The Earl of Chatham having resigned, Parlia- 
ment was dissolved. Party spirit running high, 
the electioneering contests were unusually violent, 
and serious disorders occurred. Mr. Wilkes was 
returned for Middlesex ; but, being committed to 
the King's Bench for libels on the government, the 
mob rescued Wilkes from the soldiers, who were 
conducting him thither. The military were or- 
dered to fire on the people, and one man, who was 
singled out and pursued by the soldiers, was shot 
dead. A coroner's inquest brought this in wilful 
murder, though the higher authorities not only ac- 
quitted the magistrates and soldiers, but actually 
returned public thanks to them ! 

At this period, the heart sickens at the rela- 
tions given of the punishments inflicted on many 
private soldiers in the guards. They were each 
allowed only four pence per day. If they deserted 
and were retaken, the poor delinquents suffered 
the dreadful infliction of five hundred lashes. 
The victims thus flagellated very seldom escaped 
with life ! In the navy, also, the slightest offence 
or neglect was punished with inexpressible tor- 
tures. This infamous treatment of brave men can 
only be accounted for by the fact that officers in 
the army and navy either bought their situations 


or received them as a compensation for some 
secret service performed for, or by the request of, 
the queen and her servile ministry. Had officers 
been promoted from the ranks, for performing real 
services to their coimtry, they would have then 
possessed more commiseration for their brothers 
in arms. 

We must here do justice to the character of 
George the Third from all intentional tyranny. 
Many a time has this monarch advocated the 
cause of the productive classes, and as fre- 
quently have his ministers, urged on by the 
queen, defeated his most sanguine wishes, until 
he found himself .a mere cipher in the affairs of 
state. The king's simplicity of style and unaf- 
fected respect for the people would have induced 
him to despise the gorgeous pageantry of state; 
he had been happy, indeed, to have been " the real 
father of his subjects." His Majesty well knew 
that the public good ought to be the sole aim of 
all governments, and that for this purpose a prince 
is invested with the regal crown. A king is not 
to employ his authority, patronage, and riches, 
merely to gratify his own lusts and ambition ; but, 
if need require it, he ought even to sacrifice his 
own ease and pleasure for the benefit of his coun- 
try. We give George the Third credit for holding 
these sentiments, which, however, only increased 
his regrets, as he really had no power to act, — 
that power being in the possession of his queen 


and other crafty and designing persons, to whose 
opinions and determinations he had become a per- 
fect slave. It is to be regretted that he had not 
sufficient nerve to eject such characters from his 
councils; for assuredly the nation would have 
been, to a man, willing to protect him j&rom their 
vile machinations ; but once subdued, he was sub- 
dued for ever. 

From the birth, a prince is a subject of flattery, 
and is even caressed for his vicious propensities ; 
nay, his minions never appear before him without 
a mask, while every artiflce that cunning can sug- 
gest is practised to deceive him. He is not al- 
lowed to mix in general society, and therefore is 
ignorant of the wants and wishes of the people 
over whom he is destined to reign. When he 
becomes a king, his counsellors obtain his signa- 
ture whenever they desire it ; and, as his extrava- 
gance increases, so must sums of money, in some 
way or other, be extorted from his suffering and 
oppressed subjects. Should his ministers prove 
ambitious, war is the natural result, and the money 
of the poor is again in request to furnish means 
for their own destruction. Whereas, had the 
prince been associated with the intelligent and 
respectable classes of society, he might have 
warded off the evil, and, instead of desolating 
war, peace might have shed her gentle influ- 
ence over the land. Another barbarous custom 
is the injunction imposed upon royal succession 


that, they shall marry only with their equals in 
birth. But is not this a violation of the most 
vital interests and solemn engagements to which 
humanity have subscribed? What unhappiness 
has not such an unnatural doctrine produced? 
Quality of blood ought only to be recognised by 
corresponding nobility of sentiments, principles, 
and actions. He that is debarred from possessing 
the object of his virtuous regard is to be pitied, 
whether he be a king or a peasant ; and we can 
hardly wonder at his sinking into the abyss of 
carelessness, imbecility, and even madness. 

In February, 1769, the first of those deficien- 
cies in the civil list, which had occurred from time 
to time, was made known to Parliament by a mes- 
sage in the name of the unhappy king, but who 
only did as he was ordered by his ministerial cabal. 
This debt amounted to five hundred thousand 
pounds, and his Majesty was tutored to say that 
he relied on the zeal and affection of his faithful 
Commons to enable him to discharge it. The 
principal part of this money was expended upon 
wretches of the most abandoned description for 
services performed against the welfare of England. 

The year 1770 proved one of much political 
interest. The queen was under the necessity of 
retiring a little from the apparent part she had 
taken in the affairs of state ; nevertheless, she was 
equally active, but from policy did not appear so. 
Another plan to deceive the people being deemed 


necessary, invitations for splendid parties were 
given in order to assume an appearance of confi- 
dence and quietness which her Majesty could not, 
and did not, possess. 

In this year, Lord Chatham publicly avowed his 
sentiments in these words : " Infuse a portion of 
health into the constitution to enable it to bear its 
infirmities." Previous to making this remark, his 
lordship, of course, was well acquainted with the 
causes of the then present distresses of the coun- 
try, as well as the sources from whence those 
causes originated. But one generous patriot is not 
sufiicient to put a host of antagonists to fiight. 
The earl's measures were too mild to be heeded 
by the minions of the queen then in power ; his 
intention being **to persuade and soften, not to 
irritate and offend." We may infer that, had he 
been merely a "party man," he would naturally 
concur in any enterprise likely to create a bustle 
without risk to himself; but, upon examination, 
he appears to have loved the cause of independ- 
ence, and was willing to support it by every 
personal sacrifice. 

About this time, the Duke of Grafton resigned 
his office of first lord of the treasury, in which he 
was succeeded by that disgrace to his coimtry. 
Lord North, who then commenced his long and 
disastrous administration. Doctor Wilmot was a 
friendly preceptor to this nobleman, while at the 
university; but it was frequently a matter of 


regret to the worthy doctor, that his lordship had 
not imbibed those patriotic principles which he 
had so strongly endeavoured to inculcate ; and he 
has been known to observe that Lord North's 
administration called for the most painful animad- 
versions, inasmuch as he advocated the enaction 
of laws of the most arbitrary character. 

Mr. Wilkes, previous to the meeting of the 
Commons in January, was not only acquitted, but 
had damages, to a large amount, awarded him ; and 
the king expressed a desire that such damages 
should be paid out of his privy purse. The Earl 
of Halifax, who signed the warrant for his com- 
mittal to the Tower in 1 763, was finally so disap- 
pointed that he offered his resignation, though he 
afterward accepted the privy seal. 

It was during this year that the celebrated 
•* Letters of Junius " first appeared. These com- 
positions were distinguished as well by the force 
and elegance of their style as by the violence of 
their attacks on individuals. The first of these 
letters was printed in the Public Advertiser^ of 
December the 19th, and addressed to the king» 
animadverting on all the errors of his reign, and 
speaking of his ministers in terms of equal con- 
tempt and abhorrence. An attempt was made to 
suppress this letter by the strong arm of the law ; 
but the effort proved abortive, as the jury acquitted 
the printer, who was the person prosecuted. Ju- 
nius (though under a feigned name) was the most 


competent person to speak fully upon political sub- 
jects. He had long been the bosom friend of the 
king, and spent all his leisure time at court. No 
one, therefore, could better judge of the state of 
public affairs than himself, and his sense of duty 
to the nation animated him to plead for the long- 
estranged rights of the people ; indeed, upon many 
occasions he displayed such a heroic firmness, 
such an invincible love of truth, and such an un- 
conquerable sense of honour, that he permitted his 
talents to be exercised freely in the cause of pub- 
lic justice, and subscribed his addenda under an 
envelope, rather than injure his prince, or leave 
the interests of his countrymen to the risk of for- 
tuitous circumstances. We know of whom we 
speak, and therefore feel authorised to assert that 
in his character was concentrated the steady 
friend of the prince as well as of the people. 

Numerous disquisitions have been written to 
prove the identity of Junius ; but, in spite of many 
arguments to the contrary, we recognise him in 
the person of the Rev. James Wilmot, D. D., rec- 
tor of Barton on the Heath, and Aulcester, War- 
wickshire, and one of his Majesty's justices of the 
peace for that county. 

Doctor Wilmot was bom in 1 720, and, during 
his stay at the university, became intimately ac- 
quainted with Doctor Johnson, Lord Archer, and 
Lord Plymouth, as well as Lord North, who was 
then entered at Trinity College. From these gen- 


tlemen, the doctor imbibed his political opinions, 
and was introduced to the first society in the king- 
dom. At the age of thirty, Doctor Wilmot was 
confidently entrusted with the most secret affairs 
of state, and was also the bosom friend of the 
Prince of Wales, afterward George the Third, who 
at that time was under the entire tutorage of Lord 
Bute. To this nobleman. Doctor Wilmot had an 
inveterate hatred, for he despised the selfish prin- 
ciples of Toryism. As soon as the Princess of 
Mecklenburg (the late Queen Charlotte) arrived 
in this country in 1761, Doctor Wilmot was intro- 
duced, as the especial friend of the king, and this 
will at once account for his being chosen to 
perform the second marriage ceremony of their 
Majesties at Kew palace, as before related. 

A circumstance of rather a singular nature 
occurred to Doctor Wilmot, in the year 1765, in- 
asmuch as it was the immediate cause of the bold 
and decisive line of conduct which he afterward 
adopted. It was simply this : the doctor received 
an anonymous letter, requesting an interview with 
the writer in Kensington Gardens. The letter 
was written in Latin, and sealed, the impression 
of which was a Medusa's head. The doctor at 
first paid no attention to it ; but during the week 
he received four similar requests, written by the 
same hand; and, upon the receipt of the last, 
Doctor Wilmot provided himself with a brace of 
pocket pistols, and proceeded to the gardens at 


the hour ^pomted. The doctor felt much sur- 
prised when he was accosted by — Lord Bute I 
who immediately suggested that Doctor Wilmot 
should assist the administration, as her Majesty 
had entire confidence in him ! The doctor briefly 
declined, and very soon afterward commenced his 
political career. Thus the German princess always 
endeavoured to inveigle the friends of the people. 

Lord Chatham had been introduced to Doctor 
Wilmot by the Duke of Cumberland ; and it was 
from these associations with the court and the 
members of the several administrations that the 
doctor became so competent to write his unpar- 
alleled " Letters of Junius." 

We here subjoin an incontrovertible proof of 
Doctor Wilmot's being the author of the work 
alluded to : 



This is a facsimile of the doctor's handwriting, 
and must for ever set at rest the long disputed 
question of " Who is the author of Juinus } " 

The people were really in need of the advocacy 


of a writer like Junius, for their burdens at this 
time were of the most grievous magnitude. Al- 
though the country was not in danger from for- 
eign enemies, in order to give posts of command, 
honour, and emolument to the employed syco- 
phants at court, our navy was increased, nominal 
situations were provided; while all the means to 
pay for such services were again ordered to be 
drawn from the people. 



Tyranny — Printers and the Proceedings of Parliament — The 
King Outwitted — The "Thirty-nine Articles " — Parliamen- 
tary Bickerings — East India Company — The Earl of Chat- 
ham and the King — Commercial Credit — Death of a 
Debauchee — The American Revolution — Heavy Taxation 

— An Unhappy Condition of Affairs — German Despotism 

— Cowardly Inactivity. 

[he year 1771 was productive of little 
else than harassing distresses to the 
poor labourer and mechanic. At this 
period, it was not unusual to tear the husband 
from the wife, and the parent from the child, 
and immure them within the damp and noisome 
walls of a prison, to prevent any interposition on 
the part of the suffering multitudes. Yes, coun- 
trymen, such tyranny was practised to ensure the 
secrecy of truth, and to destroy the wishes of 
a monarch, who was rendered incpmpetent to 
act for himself. 

Various struggles were made this year to curb 
the power of the judges, particularly in cases 
relating to the liberty of the press, and also to 
destroy the power vested in the attorney-general 
of prosecuting ex officio^ without the intervention 

of a grand jury, or the forms observed by courts of 



law in other cases. But the boroughmongers and 
minions of the queen were too powerful for the 
liberal party in the House of Commons, and 
the chains of slavery were, consequently, riveted 

A question of g^at importance also occurred 
this year respecting the privileges of the House of 
Commons. It had become the practice of news- 
paper writers to take the liberty, not before 
ventured upon, of printing the speeches of the 
members, under their respective names ; some of 
which in the whole, and others in essential parts, 
were spurious productions, and, in any case, con- 
trary to the standing orders of the House. A 
complaint on this ground having been made by 
a member against two of the printers, an order 
was issued for their attendance, with which they 
refused to comply ; a second order was given, with 
no better success. At length, one of the printers 
being taken into custody under the authority of 
the Speaker's warrant, he was carried before the 
celebrated Alderman John Wilkes, who, regard- 
ing the caption as illegal, not only discharged the 
man, but bound him over to prosecute his captor, 
for assatdt and false imprisonment. Two more 
printers, being apprehended and carried before 
Alderman Wilkes and the lord mayor, Crosby, 
were, in like manner, discharged. The indigna- 
tion of the House was then directed against the 
city magistrates, and various measures adopted 


toward them. The contest finally terminated in 
favour of the printers, who have ever since con- 
tinued to publish the proceedings of Parlia- 
ment, and the speeches of the members, without 

In this year, the marriage of the Duke of Cum- 
berland with Mrs. Horton took place. The king 
appeared electrified when the matter was com- 
municated to him, and declared that he never 
would forgive his royal brother's conduct, who> 
being informed of his Majesty's sentiments, thus 
wrote to him : " Sire, my welfare will ensure your 
own ; you cannot condemn an affair there is a 
precedent for, even in your own person!** — 
alluding to his Majesty's marriage with Hannah 
Lightfoot. His Majesty was compelled to ac- 
knowledge this marriage, from the Duke of 
Cumberland having made a confidant of Colo- 
nel Luttrell, brother of Mrs. Horton^ with regard 
to several important state secrets which had 
occurred in the years 1759, 1760, 1761, 1762, 
and 1763. 

This Duke of Cumberland also imbibed the 
family complaint of bigamy ; for he had been 
married, about twelve months previous, to a daugh- 
ter of Doctor Wilmot, who, of course, remon- 
strated against such unjust treatment. The king 
solemnly assured Doctor Wilmot that he might 
rely upon his humanity and honour. The doctor 
paused, and had the courage to say, in reply, '' I 


have once before relied upon the promises of your 
Majesty ! But — " " Hush ! hush ! '* said the 
king, interrupting him, <<I know what you are 
going to say ; but do not disturb me with wills 
and retrospection of past irreparable injury." 

The death of the Earl of Halifax, soon after the 
close of the session in this year, caused a vacancy ; 
and the Duke of Grafton returned to office, as 
keeper of the privy seal. His Grace was a par- 
ticular favourite with the queen, but much dis- 
liked by the intelligent and reflecting part of the 

The political atmosphere bore a gloomy aspect 
at the commencement of 1772, and petitions from 
the people were sent to the king and the two 
houses of Parliament, for the repeal of what they 
believed to be imjust and pernicious laws upon the 
subject of religious liberty. Several clergymen of 
the Established Church prayed to be liberated 
from their obligation to subscribe to the " Thirty- 
nine Articles." But it was urged, in opposition to 
the petitions, that government had an undoubted 
right to establish and maintain such a system of 
instruction as the ministers thereof deemed most 
suitable for the public benefit. But expedience 
and right are as far asunder, in truth, as is the dis- 
tance from pole to pole. The policy of the state 
required some new source from whence to draw 
means for the secret measures needful for pro- 
longing the existence of its privacy; and it was. 


therefore, deemed expedient to keep politics and 
religion as close together as possible, by enforcing 
the strictest obedience of all demands made upon 
the clergy, in such forms and at such times as 
should best accord with the political system of the 
queen. In consequence of which, the petitions 
were rejected by a majority of 217 borough- 
mongers against seventy-one real representatives 
of the people ! 

An act, passed this session, for " Making more 
effectual provisions to g^ard the descendants of 
the late king, George the Second, from marrying 
without the approbation of his Majesty, his heirs, 
and successors, first had and obtained," was stren- 
uously opposed by the liberal party in every stage 
of its progress through both houses. It was gen- 
erally supposed to have had its origin in the 
marriage contracted but a few months before by 
the Duke of Cumberland with Mrs. Horton, relict 
of Colonel Horton, and daughter of Lord Imham ; 
and also in a private, though long-suspected, mar- 
riage of the Duke of Gloucester to the Countess- 
dowager of Waldegrave, which the duke at this 
time openly avowed. But were there not other 
reasons which operated on the mind of the queen 
(for the poor king was only a passive instrument in 
her power) to force this bill into a law } Had she 
not an eye to her husband's former alliance with 
the Quakeress, and the Duke of York's marriage 
in Italy } The latter was even more dangerous to 


her peace than the former; for the duke had 
married a descendant of the Stuarts ! 

Lord Chatham made many representations to 
the king and queen of the improper and injudicious 
state of the penal laws. He cited an instance of 
unanswerable disproportion ; namely, that, on the 
14th of July, two persons were publicly whipped 
around Covent Garden market, in accordance with 
the sentence passed upon them; but mark the 
difference of the crimes for which they were so 
punished : one was for stealing a bunch of rad- 
ishes ; the other for debauching his own niece I 
In vain, however, did this [friend of humanity rep- 
resent the unwise, unjust, and inconsistent tenor 
of such laws. The king was anxious to alter them 
immediately; but the queen was decided in her 
opinion, that they ought to be left entirely to the 
pleasure and opinion of the judges, well knowing 
they would not disobey her will upon any point of 
law, or equity, so called. Thus did the nation 
lang^h under the t}rrannical usurpation of a 
German princess, whose disposition and talents 
were much better calculated to give laws to the 
brute creation than to interfere with English 

In November of this year, it was announced 
that the king earnestly desired Parliament should 
take into consideration the state of the East India 
Company. But the king was ignorant of the 
subject; though, it was true, the queen desired 


it, because she received vast emoluments from 
the various situations purchased by individuals 
under the denomination of cadets, etc Of course^ 
her Majesty's will was tantamount to law. 

The Earl of Chatham resolved once more to 
speak to the queen upon the state of things, and 
had an audience for that purpose. As an honest 
man, he very warmly advocated the cause of the 
nation, and represented the people to be in a high 
state of excitement, adding that, "if they be 
repelled, they must be repelled by force ! " And 
to whom ought an unhappy sufifering people to 
have had recourse, but to the throne, whose power 
sanctioned the means used to drain their purses ? 
The queen, however, was still unbending ; she not 
only inveighed against the candour and sentiments 
of the earl, but requested she might not again be 
troubled by him upon such subjects! Before 
retiring, Lord Chatham said: "Your Majesty must 
excuse me if I say the liberty of the subject is the 
surest protection to the monarch, and if the prince 
protects the guilty, instead of punishing them, 
time will convince him that he has judged erro- 
neously, and acted imprudently." 

The earl retired; but "his labouring breast 
knew not peace," and he resolved, for the last 
time^ to see the king in private. An interview 
was requested, and as readily granted. "Well, 
well," said the king, "I hope no bad news?" 
" No bad news, your Majesty ; but I wish to sub- 


mit to your opinion a few questions." "Quite 
right, quite right," said the king, "tell me all." 
The earl did so, and, after his faithful appeal to 
the king, concluded by saying, " My sovereign will 
excuse me, but I can no longer be a party to the 
deceptions pawned upon the people, as I am, and 
consider myself to be, amenable to God and my 
conscience I " Would that England had possessed 
a few more such patriots ! 

This year will ever be memorable in history as 
the commencement of that partition of Poland, be- 
tween three contiguous powers, — Russia, Austria, 
and Prussia, — which has served as an example 
and apology for all those shameful violations of 
public right and justice that have stained the 
modem annals of Europe. The unfortunate Poles 
appealed in vain to Great Britain, France, and 
Spain, and the States General of Holland, on the 
atrocious perfidy and injustice of these proceed- 
ings. After some unavailing remonstrances, the 
Diet was compelled, at the point of the bayonet, 
to sign a treaty for the formal cession of the 
several districts which the three usurpers had 
fixed upon and guaranteed to each other. The 
partitioning legitimates also generously made a 
present of an aristocratic constitution to the suf- 
fering Poles. 

In the year 1773, commercial credit was greatly 
injured by extensive failures in England and Hol- 
land. The distress and embarrassment of the 


mercantile classes were further augmented by a 
great diminution in the gold coin, in consequence 
of wear and fraud, — such loss, by act of Parlia- 
ment, being thrown upon the holders. 

At this time the discontents which had long 
been manifest in the American colonies broke out 
into open revolt. The chief source of irritation 
against the mother country was the impolitic 
measure of retaining a trifling duty on tea, as an 
assertion of the right of the British Parliament to 
tax the colonies. 

The year 1774 bore a gloomy and arbitrary 
character, with wars abroad and uneasiness at 
home. The county of Nottingham omitted to 
raise their militia in the former year, and in this 
they were fined two thousand pounds. 

Louis the Fifteenth of France died this year of 
the smallpox, caught from a coimtry girl, introduced 
to him by Madame du Barrd to gratify his sensual 
desires. He was in the sixty-fourth year of his 
age, and in the fifty-ninth of his reign. The gross 
debaucheries into which he had sunk, with the 
despotic measures he had adopted toward the 
Chamber of Deputies in his latter years, had en- 
tirely deprived him of his appellation of the " Well- 
beloved." Few French sovereigns have left a 
less respected memory. 

The year 1775 was also one of disquiet. The 
city of London addressed the throne, and petitioned 
against the existing grievances, expressing their 


strong abhorrence of the measures adopted toward 
the Americans, justifying their resistance, and be- 
seeching his Majesty to dismiss his ministers. The 
invisible power of the queen, however, prevented 
their receiving redress and the ministers were re- 
tained, contrary to all petition and remonstrance. 
Upon these occasions the king was obliged to 
submit to any form of expression dictated by the 
minister, that minister being under the entire con- 
trol of the queen ; and though the nation seemed 
to wear a florid countenance, it was sick at heart. 
Lord North was a very considerable favourite with 
her Majesty ; while his opponents, Messrs. Fox and 
Burke, were proportionately disliked. The Duke 
of Grafton now felt tired of his situation, and told 
the queen that he could no longer continue in 
office ; in consequence of which, the Earl of Dart- 
mouth received the privy seal. 

The Americans, in the meantime, were vigor- 
ously prepkring for what they conceived to be 
inevitable — a war. Various attempts, notwith- 
standing, were made by the enlightened and lib- 
eral-minded part of the community to prevent 
ministers from continuing hostilities against them. 
That noble and persevering patriot. Lord Chatham, 
raised his warning voice against it. "I wish," 
said he, "not to lose a day in this urgent, press- 
ing crisis ; an hour now lost in allaying ferments 
in America may produce years of calamity! 
Never will I desert, in any stage of its progress, 


the conduct of this momentous business. Unless 
fettered to my bed by the extremity of sickness, 
I will give it unremitted attention ; I will knock 
at the gates of this sleeping and confounded min- 
istry, and will, if it be possible, rouse them to a 
sense of their danger. The recall of your army, I 
urge as necessarily preparatory to the restoration 
of your peace. By this it will appear that you are 
disposed to treat amicably and equitably, and to 
consider, revise, and repeal, if it should be found 
necessary, as I affirm it will, those violent acts and 
declarations which have disseminated confusion 
throughout the empire. Resistance to these acts 
was necessary, and therefore just ; and your vain 
declaration of the omnipotence of Parliament, and 
your imperious doctrines of the necessity of sub- 
mission, will be found equally impotent to convince 
or enslave America, who feels that tyranny is 
equally intolerable, whether it be exercised by an 
individual part of the legislature, or by the collect- 
ive bodies which compose it ! " 

How prophetic did this language afterward 
prove ! Oh, England, how hast thou been cursed 
by debt and blood through the impotency ^d 
villainy of thy rulers ! 

In the year 1776 the Earl of Harcourt was 
charged with a breach of privilege, but his ser- 
vices for the queen operated as a sufficient reason 
for rejecting the matter of complaint. 

So expensive did the unjust and disgraceful war 


with America prove this year, that more than nine 
millions were supplied for its service. In order 
to raise this shameful amount extra taxes were 
levied on newspapers, deeds, and other matters 
of public utility. Thus were the industrious and 
really productive classes imposed upon and their 
means exhausted to gratify the inordinate wishes 
of a German princess, now entitled to be the 
cause of their misery and ruin. The queen knew 
that war required soldiers and sailors, and that 
these soldiers and sailors must have officers over 
them, which would afford her an opportunity of 
selling commissions or of bestowing them upon 
some of her favourites. So that these things 
contributed to her Majesty's individual wealth and 
power, what cared she for the increase of the 
country's burdens ! 

It is wonderful to reflect upon the means with 
which individuals in possession of power have con- 
trived, in all ages and in all countries, to control 
mankind. From thoughtlessness and the absence 
of knowledge the masses of people have been 
made to contend, with vehemence and courageous 
enterprise, against their own interests, and for the 
benefit of those mercenary wretches by whom they 
have been enslaved ! How monstrous it is that, 
to gratify the sanguinary feelings of one tyrant, 
thousands of human beings should go forth to 
the field of battle as willing sacrifices ! Ignorance 
alone has produced such lamentable results ; for 


a thirst after blood is never so effectually quenched 
as when it is repressed by the influence of knowl- 
edge, which teaches humility, moderation, benevo- 
lence, and the practice of every other virtue. In 
civilised society there cannot be an equality of 
property; and, from the dissimilarity in human 
organisation, there cannot be equality in the power 
and vigour of the mind. All men, however, are 
entitled to, and ought to enjoy, a perfect equality 
in civil and political rights. In the absence of 
this just condition a nation can only be partially 
free. The people of such a nation exist under 
imequal laws, and those persons upon whom in- 
juries are inflicted by the partial operation of those 
laws are, it must be conceded, the victims of an 
authority which they cannot control. Such was, 
imhappily, the condition of the English people at 
this period. To prevent truth from having an 
impartial hearing and explanation, the plans of 
government were obliged to be of an insincere 
and unjust character. The consequences were 
the debasement of morals and the prostitution 
of the happiness and rights of the people. But 
power was in the grasp of tyranny, attended on 
each side by pride and cruelty ; while fear pre- 
sented an excuse for silence and apathy, and left 
artifice and avarice to extend their baneful influ- 
ence over society. British courage was stifled by 
arbitrary persecutions, fines, and imprisonment, 
which threatened to overwhelm all who dared to 


resist the tide of German despotism. Had unity 
and resolution been the watchwords of the sons of 
Britain, what millions of debt might have been 
prevented, what oceans of blood might have 
been saved! The iniquitous ministers who dic- 
tated war with America should have suffered as 
traitors to their country, which would have been 
their fate had not blind ignorance and servility, 
engendered by priests and tyrants through the 
impious frauds of Church and state, overwhelmed 
the better reason of the great mass of mankind ! 
It was, we say, priestcraft and statecraft that 
kindled this unjustifiable war in order to lower 
human nature, and induce men to butcher each 
other under the most absurd, frivolous, and wicked 
pretences. Englishmen, at the commencement of 
the American war, appear to have been no better 
than wretched captives, without either courage, 
reason, or virtue, from whom the queen's banditti 
of gaolers shut out the glorious light of day. 
There were, however, some few patriots who 
raised their voices in opposition to the abomi- 
nable system then in practice, and many generous- 
hearted men who boldly refused to fight against 
the justified resistance of the Americans ; but the 
general mass remained inactive, cowardly inactive, 
against their merciless oppressors. The queen 
pretended to lament the sad state of affairs, while 
she did all in her power to continue the misrule. 


French Assistance in America — Lord Chatham the Champion 

— Ribbons and Garters — Burke vs. North — The Great Lord 
Abingdon — Riots — Defeat at Yorktown — A Political Coali- 
tion — Princely Pleasures — " The System " — Irish Prosecu- 
tions — The Prince and Mrs. Fitzherbert — A Heated Debate 

— The Prince Again — Splendid Fdtes. 

[T the commencement of 1777 the sev- 
eral states of Europe had their eyes 
fixed on the contest between this coun- 
try and the colonies. The French government 
assisted the Americans with fleets and armies, 
though they did not enter into the contest pub- 
licly. Queen Charlotte still persevered in her de- 
signs against America, and bore entire sway over 
her unfortunate husband. The country, as might 
be expected, was in a state of great excitement, 
owing to the adoption of measures inimical to the 
wishes and well-being of the people. The greater 
power the throne assumed, the larger amounts were 
necessarily drawn from the people, to reward fawn- 
ing courtiers and borough proprietors. 

This year thirteen millions of money were deemed 
needful for the public service, and the debts of the 
civil list a second time discharged ! At this time 
the revenues did not amount to eight millions, and, 



to supply the consequent deficiency, new taxes were 
again levied upon the people ; for ministers carried 
all their bills, however infamous they might be, by 
large majorities. 

In May Lord Chatham again addressed the 
"peers," and called their attention to the neces- 
sity of changing the proceedings of government. 
Although bowed down by age and infirmity, and 
bearing a crutch in each hand, he delivered his 
sentiments, with all the ardour of youth, in these 
words : " I wish the removal of accumulated griev- 
ances and the repeal of every oppressive act which 
has been passed since the year 1763. I am ex- 
perienced in spring hopes and vernal promises, but 
at last will come your equinoctial disappointment." 

On another occasion, he said : *< I will not join 
in congratulation on misfortune and disgrace ! It 
is necessary to instruct the throne in the lan- 
guage of truth ! We must dispel the delusions 
and darkness which envelop it. I am old and 
weak, and at present unable to say more ; but 
my feelings and indignation were too strong to per- 
mit me to say less." Alas ! this patriot stood 
nearly alone. In his opinion, the good of the 
people was the supreme law ; but this was opposed 
to the sentiments of the hirelings of state and 
their liberal mistress. 

As a last effort, the earl resolved to seek an 
audience of the queen, and the request was read- 
ily complied with. The day previous to his last 


speech, delivered in the House of Lords, this 
interview took place. His lordship pressed the 
queen to relieve the people, and, by every possi- 
ble means, to mitigate the public burdens. But, 
though her Majesty was gentle in her language, 
she expressed herself positively and decisively as be- 
ing adverse to his views ; and took the opportunity 
of reminding him of the secrecy of state affairs. 
As Lord Chatham had once given his solemn 
promise never to permit those secrets to transpire, 
he resolved faithfully to keep his engagement, 
though their disclosure would have opened the 
eyes of the public to the disgraceful proceedings 
of herself and ministers. The noble earl retired 
from his royal audience in much confusion and 
agitation of mind ; and on the following day, April 
the 7th, went to the House, and delivered a most 
energetic speech, which was replied to by the 
Duke of Richmond. Lord Chatham afterward 
made an effort to rise, as if labouring to give 
expression to some great idea; but, before he 
could utter a word, pressed his hand on his bosom, 
and fell down in a convulsive fit. The Duke of 
Cumberland and Lord Temple caught him in their 
arms, and removed him into the prince's chamber. 
Medical assistance being immediately rendered, in 
a short time his lordship in some measure re- 
covered, and was removed to his favourite villa 
at Hayes, in Kent. Hopes of his complete res- 
toration to health, however, proved delusive, and 


on the loth of May, 1778, this venerable and 
noble friend of humanity expired, in the seventieth 
year of his age* 

The news of the earl's death was not disagree- 
able to the queen ; and she thenceforth determined 
to increase, rather than decrease, her arbitrary 
measures. Ribbons, stars, and garters were be- 
stowed upon those who lent their willing aid to 
support her system of oppression, while thousands 
were perishing in want to supply the means. 

Manchester, Liverpool, Glasgow, and Edinburgh, 
this year, were servile enough to raise regiments 
at their own expense ; but the independent and brave 
citizens of London, steady to their principles, that 
the war was unjust, refused to follow so mean 
an example. 

The year 1779 exhibits a miserable period in 
the history of Ireland. Her manufactures declined, 
and the people became, consequently, much dis- 
satisfied ; but their distresses were, at first, not even 
noticed by the English Parliament. At length, 
however, an alarm of invasion took place, and 
ministers allowed twenty thousand Irish volunteers 
to carry arms. The ministers, who before had 
been callous to their distresses, found men in arms 
were not to be trifled with, and the Irish people 
obtained a promise of an extension of trade, which 
satisfied them for the time. 

Large sums were again required to meet the 
expenses of the American war, and, the minister 


being supported by the queen, every vote for 
supplies was carried by great majorities; for the 
year's service alone fifteen millions were thus 
agreed to. As the family of the king increased, 
extra sums were also deemed requisite for each 
of his children ; and what amounts could not be 
raised by taxation were procured by loans, — thus 
insulting the country, by permitting its expenditures 
to exceed its means of income to an enormous 

Many representations were made to Lord North 
that public opinion was opposed to the system 
pursued by ministers; but he was inflexible, and 
the generous interpositions of some members of 
the Upper House proved also unavailing. The 
independent members of the Commons remon- 
strated, and Mr. Burke brought forward plans 
for the reduction of the national expenditure and 
the diminution of the influence of the Crown ; but 
they were finally rejected, though not until violent 
conflicts had taken place, in which Lord North 
found himself more than once in the minority. 

About this time, Mr. Dunning, a lawyer and an 
eminent speaker, advocated, in a most sensible 
manner, the necessity of taking into consideration 
the affairs of Ireland ; but ministers defeated the 
intended benefit, and substituted a plan of their 
own, which they had previously promised to Ire- 
land ; namely, to permit a free exportation of their 
woollen manufactures. The unassuming character 


of that oppressed people never appeared to greater 
advantage than at this period, as even this resolu- 
tion was received by them with the wannest testi- 
monies of joy and gratitude. 

There cannot be a doubt that, if the Irish had 
been honestly represented, their honour and ardour 
would have been proverbial ; but they have almost 
always been neglected and insulted. The queen 
had taken Lord North's advice, and acquainted 
herself with the native character of the Irish, by 
which she became aware that, if that people gen- 
erally possessed information, they would prove a 
powerful balance against the unjust system then 
in force. At this time, there was not an Irishman 
acquainted with any state secrets; her Majesty, 
therefore, did not fear an explanation from that 
quarter, or she dare not have so oppressed them. 

To provide for the exigencies of state, twelve 
millions of money, in addition to the former fif- 
teen millions, were required this year; and thus 
were the sorrows of a suffering people increased, 
and they themselves forced to forge their own 
chains of oppression. 

Numerous were the prosecutions against the 
press this year; among the rest, Mr. Parker, 
printer of The General Advertiser^ was brought 
before the " House of Hereditaries," for publish- 
ing a libel on one of its noble members. That 
there were a few intelligent and liberal-minded 
men in the House of Lords at this time, we do 


not wish to deny. The memorable speech of Lord 
Abingdon proved his lordship to be one of these, 
and, as this speech so admirably distinguishes 
privilege from tyranny, we hope to be excused 
for introducing it in our pages. We give it in 
his lordship's own words : 

" My Lords : — Although there is no noble 
lord more zealously attached to the privileges of 
this House than I am, yet when I see those privi- 
leges interfering with, and destructive of, the 
rights of the people, there is no one among the 
people more ready to oppose those privileges than 
myself. And, my lords, my reason is this : that 
the privileges of neither House of Parliament were 
ever constitutionally given to either to combat with 
the rights of the people. They were given, my 
lords, that each branch of the legislature might 
defend itself against the encroachments of the 
other, and to preserve that balance entire, which is 
essential to the preservation of all. 

"This was the designation, this is the use of 
privilege ; and in this unquestionable shape let us 
apply it. Let us apply it against the encroach- 
ments of the Crown, and not suffer any lord (if any 
such there be), who, having clambered up into the 
House upon the ladder of prerogative, might wish 
to yield up our privileges to that prerogative. Let 
us make use of our privileges against the other 
House of Parliament, whenever occasion shall 


make it necessary, but not against the people. 
This is the distinction and this the meaning of 
privil^e. The people are under the law, and we 
are the l^slators. If they ofiFend, let them be 
punished according to law, where we have our 
remedy. If we are injured in our reputations, the 
law has provided us with a special remedy. We 
are entitled to the action of scandalum magnatumf 
— a privilege peculiar to ourselves. For these 
reasons, then, my lords, when the noble earl made 
his motion for the printer to be brought before 
this House, and when the end of that motion was 
answered by the author of the paper complained 
of giving up his name, I was in great hopes that 
the motion would have been withdrawn. I am 
sorry it was not ; and yet, when I say this, I do 
not mean to wish that an inquiry into the merits 
of that paper should not be made. As it stands 
at present, the noble lord accused therein is the 
disgrace of this House, and the scandal of gov- 
ernment. I therefore trust, for his own honour, 
for the honour of this House, that that noble lord 
will not object to, but will himself insist upon, the 
most rigid inquiry into his conduct. 

" But, my lords, to call for a printer, in the case 
of a libel, when he gives up his author (although a 
modem procedure), is not founded in law ; for in 
the statute of Westminster, the ist, Chapter 34, it 
is said, ' None shall report any false and slanderous 
news or tales of great men, whereby any discord 


may arise betwixt the king and his people^ on 
pain of imprisonment, until they bring forth the 
author.' The statutes of the 2d of Richard the 
Second, Chapter 5, and the 14th of the same 
reign, are to the same effect. It is there enacted, 
that, < No person shall devise, or tell any false 
news or lies of any lord, prelate, officer of the gov- 
ernment, judge, etc., by which any slander shall 
happen to their persons, or mischief come to the 
kingdom, upon pain of being imprisoned ; and 
where any one hath told false news or lies, and 
cannot produce the author, he shall suffer impris- 
onment, and be punished by the king's counsel.' 
Here, then, my lords, two things are clearly 
pointed out, to wit, the person to be punished, 
and what the mode of punishment is. The person 
to be punished is the author, when produced ; the 
mode of punishment is by the king's counsel ; so 
that, in the present case, the printer having given 
up the author, he is discharged from punishment ; 
and if the privilege of punishment had been in this 
House, the right is barred by these statutes ; for 
how is the punishment to be had } Not by this 
House, but by the king's counsel. And, my lords, 
it cannot be otherwise ; for, if it were, the freedom 
of the press were at an end ; and for this purpose 
was this modem doctrine, to answer modem views, 
invented, — a doctrine which I should ever stand 
up in opposition to, if even the right of its exer- 
cise were in us. But the right is not in us ; it is 


a jurisdiction too summary for the freedom of our 
constitution, and incompatible with liberty. It 
takes away the trial by jury ; which king, lords, 
and commons, have not a right to do. It is to 
make us accusers, judges, jury, and executioners 
too, if we please. It is to give us an executive 
power, to which, in our legislative capacities, we 
are not entitled. It is to give us a power which 
even the executive power itself has not, which the 
prerogative of the Crown dare not assume, which 
the king himself cannot exercise. My lords, the 
king cannot touch the hair of any man's head in 
this coimtry, though he be guilty of high treason, 
but by means of the law. It is the law that creates 
the oflFence ; it is a jury that must determine the 
guilt ; it is the law that affixes the pimishment ; and 
all other modes of proceeding are illegal. Why then, 
my lords, are we to assume to ourselves an execu- 
tive power, with which even the executive power 
itself is not entrusted .? I am aware, my lords, it will 
be said that this House, in its capacity of a court of 
justice, has a right to call for evidence at its bar, 
and to punish the witness who shall not attend. I 
admit it, my lords ; and I admit it not only as a 
right belonging to this House, but as a right essen- 
tial to every court of justice ; for, without this right, 
justice could not be administered. But, my lords, 
was this House sitting as a court of justice (for we 
must distinguish between our judicial and our legis- 
lative capacities) when Mr. Parker was ordered to 


be taken into custody, and brought before this 
House ? If so, at whose suit was Mr. Parker to 
be examined? Where are the records? Where 
are the papers of appeal? Who is the plaintiff, 
and who the defendant ? There is nothing like 
it before your lordships ; for if there had, and Mr. 
Parker, in such case, had disobeyed the order of 
this House, he was not only punishable for his con- 
tumacy and contempt, but every magistrate in the 
kingdom was bound to assist your lordships in 
having him forthcoming at your lordship's bar. 
Whereas, as it is, every magistrate in the kingdom 
is bound, by the law of the land, to release Mr. 
Parker, if he be taken into custody by the present 
order of this House. Nothing can be more true 
than that, in our judicial capacity, we have a right 
to call for evidence at our bar, and to punish the 
witness if he does not appear. The whole body of 
the law supports us in this right. But, under the 
pretext of privil^e, to bring a man by force to 
the bar, when we have our remedy at law, to ac- 
cuse, condenm, and punish that man, at the mere 
arbitrary will and pleasure of this House, not sit- 
ting as a court of justice, is tyranny in the ab- 
stract. It is against law ; it is subversive of the 
constitution ; it is incompetent to this House ; and, 
therefore, my lords, thinking as I do, that this 
House has no right forcibly to bring any man to 
its bar, but in the discharge of its proper functions, 
as a court of judicature, I shall now move your 


lordshipsy ' that the body of W. Parker, printer of 
The General Advertiser^ be released from the cus- 
tody of the gentleman usher of the black rod, 
and that the order for the said Parker, being 
brought to the bar of this House, be now 

" Before I sit down, I will just observe to your 
lordships, that I know that precedents may be 
adduced in contradiction to the doctrine I have 
laid down. But, my lords, precedents cannot make 
that l^al and constitutional which is, in itself, 
illegal and unconstitutional. If the precedents of 
this reign are to be received as precedents in the 
next, the Lord have mercy on those who are to 
come after us ! 

" There is one observation more I would make, 
and it is this : I would wish noble lords to con- 
sider how much it lessens the dignity of this 
House to agitate privileges which you have not 
power to enforce. It hurts the constitution of 
Parliament, and, instead of being respected, makes 
us contemptible. That privilege which you cannot 
exercise, and of right too, disdain to keep.'' 

If the country had been blessed with a majority 
of such patriots as Lord Abingdon, what misery 
had been prevented ! what lives had been saved ! 

Early in the year 1780, meetings of the popu- 
lace took place in various parts of the kingdom, 
and ministers were boldly accused of having prodi- 


gaily and wastef ully spent the public money ; while 
petitions were presented, praying " for a correction 
of abuses in the public expenditure." Riots in 
many parts of England were the consequences of 
unjustly continuing wars and taxation, and several 
hundred people were killed and wounded by the 
military ; while many others forfeited their lives on 
the scaffold for daring to raise their arms against 
tyranny. Lord George Gordon was also committed 
to the Tower on a charge of high treason ; but no 
jury of his countrymen could be found to consider 
his undaunted attempt to redress the people's griev- 
ances as treasonable, and he was, consequently, 
honourably acquitted. The influence of her Maj- 
esty, however, kept a minister in office, though 
contrary to the sense of the wisest and best part 
of the community; and a ruinous war was still 
permitted to drain the blood and money of the 

War might probably be considered by those in 
power a legal trade ; but was it not continued for 
the untenable purpose of avarice.^ We think it 
was. There did not appear to be any rational hope 
for reform or retrenchment, while men versed in 
corruption were so enriched, and had an almost 
unlimited sway over the councils of the reigning 
authority. PopiJar commotion was dreaded; yet 
the ministers could not be prevailed upon to dispel 
the cause of anxiety by conciliatory measures, — 
by a timely redress of grievances, by concession of 


rights, and by reformation of abuses. If they had 
done so, they would have given satisfactory evi- 
dence that government had no other object in view 
than faithfully to discharge their duty, by adopting 
such plans as would really benefit mankind, and 
furnish means to secure the comfort and happiness 
of all men. 

In the meantime, much distress was imposed 
upon the unfortunate king, by the increasing and 
uncontrollable prodigality of some of his chil- 
dren, especially of George. The queen would not 
hear of an}^hing to his discredit, and thus what 
little of family enjoyment remained was ultimately 

The unrestrained predilection of this youthful 
prince now became habitual pursuits, and excesses 
of the most detestable description were not un- 
known to him. Within the circle of his less nomi- 
nally illustrious acquaintance, every father dreaded 
the seduction of his child, if she possessed any 
personal charms, while the mother feared to lose 
sight of her daughter, even for a moment. It is 
not in our power to give an adequate idea of the 
number of those families whose happiness he 
ruined ; but we well, too well, know the number 
was infamously great. The country gave him 
credit for being liberal in political principles, and 
generously disposed for reform. But little of his 
real character was then known ; his faults, indeed, 
were named as virtues, and his vices considered as 


gentlemanly exploits, so that his dissembled appear- 
ance was received, by those unacquainted with him, 
as the sure and incontestable mark of a great and 
noble soul. But, before our pages are concluded, 
we fear we must, in duty, prove him a widely dif- 
ferent character. It is true, his acquaintance 
with political characters was chiefly amongst " the 
Whigs ; " it may also be added that those " Whigs," 
so particularly intimate with this prince, did not 
gain much by their connection with him, but Anally 
became as supine and venal as himself. They de- 
termined that, as the heir apparent, he should not 
be allowed to suffer any deterioration of greatness^ 
and the principles and practices of so mighty an 
individual were considered by them to constitute a 
sufficient patent for continual imitation. 

At this period, Mr. Dunning moved his famous 
resolution to the House, with unbending firmness 
and uncompromising fidelity. He said, "The in- 
fluence of the Crown has increased, is increasing, 
and ought to be diminished." It was carried by a 
majority of 233 against 215 ; but a second resolu- 
tion, which was to give effect to the first, was lost 
by a majority of fifty-one votes. 

In the year 1 78 1, William Pitt, the second son of 
the late Lord Chatham, delivered his first speech 
in the Commons, in favour of the bill introduced 
by Mr. Burke, on the subject of reform. 

Lord North brought forward the budget on the 
7th of March, containing the various items needful 

C]Lirh< hnii'^ fox 

Photoiiravurc trom m^ i 


In the b^inning of July, the unexpected death 
of the Marquis of Rockmgham threw the whole 
Cabinet into extreme disorder ; and another resigna- 
tion of ministers took place, on which occasion Mr. 
Pitt was constituted ''chancellor of the excheq- 
uer," although only twenty-three years of age! 
Lord Shelbume accepted the office of premier, at 
the request of the king, which gave great offence 
to Mr. Fox and the Duke of Portland, who resigned. 
The country was little benefited by this change, as 
the money required for the service of the year was 
more than twenty-four millions, of which thirteen 
had to be raised by loans. 

In November, the provisional articles of peace 
were signed at Paris between the commissioners 
of England and those of the United States. 

The Shelbume party were obliged to retire in 
1783, having, by their arbitrary measures, drawn 
upon themselves general displeasure throughout 
the country. 

Much siuprise was created at the unexpected 
coalition of Lord North and Mr. Fox, which was 
the natural result of the pressing case of the 
prince, to whom the queen had confidentially en- 
trusted his father's breach of the law, in the 
solemnisation of his marriage with herself. The 
queen, in fact, used the prince's influence to pre- 
vail upon Mr. Fox to join Lord North, as he was 
well informed upon all the circumstances of the 
king's first marriage. Although the political 


sentiments of these gentlemen were opposedi it 
was represented as a safe line of conduct, to en- 
sure the tranquillity of the kingdom. Thus» again, 
was every portion of truth sacrificed to the will 
of the queen. 

This year, the king agreed that the heir appar- 
ent should receive fifty thousand pounds per an- 
num, and sixty thousand pounds to equip him 
suitably to his dignity. In the meantime, it be- 
came a public fact that the prince had so deeply 
involved himself in debt as to be mean enough to 
resort, through the medium of others, to borrow 
money (of various amounts) of his tradespeople. 

Before the conclusion of the year, the Whig and 
Tory ministry was ejected, to the entire satis- 
faction of nearly every individual in the nation, 
who despised such an unholy alliance of opposite 

Mr. Pitt was now made "First Lord of the 
Treasury," which was a change very satisfactory 
to her Majesty, as, from the youth of the new 
"premier," she augured her likely influence over 
the political hemisphere to be increased. It was 
well known that her Majesty did not like any of 
the prince's associates, more especially Messrs. 
Fox and Sheridan. Mr. Burke was not supposed 
to be so informed upon all subjects ; and, though 
much in the necessary confidence of the prince, 
the queen presumed it was chiefly in procuring 
pecuniary accommodations. It was not until an 


after period that the whole truth was stated to 
her by the prince. 

New taxes alone could furnish means for the 
immense additional annuities now imposed upon 
the country ; and thus were sums for every suc- 
ceeding year's demand increased. 

At this period, the Prince of Wales and his 
next brother were associated in dissipation of 
every kind. Their love of gaming was prover- 
bial, and their excess of indulgence in voluptuous- 
ness soon exhausted the income allowed them by 
the country. Their caprices were various, but 
those of the prince were most strikingly evinced 
in his abruptly declining his engagements with 
the celebrated Mrs. Robinson. His usual plan 
was, when fascinated by the appearance of a new 
object, to exert every nerve to possess it. Pres- 
ents, accompanied by the highest eulogiums, and 
protestations of eternal love and constancy, were 
always pressed upon the acceptance of the in- 
tended victim ; and thus, by apparent devotion 
and unconquerable passion, many were the delu- 
sions he practised, and the outrages he committed, 
upon the unsuspecting virtue of woman. 

Had a plebeian committed but one act similar 
to those in which the prince was so frequently the 
principal character, his life must have atoned for 
his fault, and a destitute family, in consequence, 
been plunged into distraction. But, because the 
prince was of such high-reputed family, he must. 



forsootby be accounted a noble-minded gentleman ; 
and, instead of exposition and punishment, the 
venal and hired press of the day launched out into 
the most fulsome eulogiums of his graceful, all- 
attracting elegance of style and manners, without 
even speaking of the infamy of his amours, in- 
trigues, and debaucheries. Some writers, alas! 
are so fearful of speaking the truth, lest they 
should ofifend the side they have espoused, or the 
inclinations and political principles of those by 
whom they are likely to be read, that they almost 
persuade themselves there is a sort of impropriety 
in presenting facts in their proper colours. But 
is it not beneath the dignity of the press to act in 
so cowardly a manner } 

In the year 1784 (notwithstanding the dread- 
fully enormous weight of the "national debt," 
borrowed by the ministers upon nominal annuities, 
for which large interest was given) the king was 
again solicited to assist the prince, in order that 
his debts might be discharged. This request was 
refused, and Messrs. Fox and Sheridan advocated 
the subject to no purpose. 

During this year, much public display of talent 
was made in the House. Mr. Pitt was now fully 
and entirely in her Majesty's "confidence," and 
he well knew if "the system" were to be con- 
tinued, war must be carried on, and oppression 
would increase rather than decrease. While en- 
gaged in a private interview with the queen, upon 


various state subjects, Mr. Pitt submitted bis opin- 
ion upon the extravagance and improper pursuits 
of the prince, adding, " I much fear, your Majesty, 
in his delirium of debauchery, some expressions 
may escape him, to the injury of the Crown." 
" No," answered the queen, " he is too well aware 
of the consequences to himself, if that transpired ; 
so on that point I can rely upon him." *' Is your 
Majesty aware," said Mr. Pitt, "that at this time 
the prince is engrossed by a fair beauty.' and I 
believe, from good authority I may say, intends to 
marry her. He is now so much embarrassed, 
that, at the suggestion of his trusty friend, Sheri- 
dan, he borrows large amounts from a Jew, who 
resides in town, and gives his bonds for much 
larger amounts than he receives ; by this means^ 
he is actually involved in debt to the amount of 
above a million of money ; and the interest and 
principal must, some day, be honourably discharged, 
or else he must never ascend the throne ; as the 
dishonour would cause him eternal disgrace, if not 
an abdication." Truly this was a fine picture of 
England's future monarch I 

In the year 1785 Mr. Pitt caused prosecutions 
to be issued and enforced to check the rising spirit 
of the Irish, as they appeared determined to press 
hard until they received reform in the represen- 
tation ; and, in order to divert the exasperated 
feelings of the people of England, as he stood 
deeply pledged to the reformers, " as a man and a 


minister," to bring in " a bill to amend the repre- 
sentation of the people," he moved, April i8th, for 
leave to bring it forward for the consideration of 
the House. His plan was to transfer the right 
of election from thirty-six rotten boroughs to the 
counties and principal unrepresented towns, allow- 
ing a pecuniary compensation to the owners of the 
disfranchised boroughs, and to extend the right of 
voting for knights of the shires to copyholders. 
This minister suffered his motion to be negatived 
by 248 against 194. Had there been honesty 
on the part of the minister toward the people, 
xmfettered by any state secrets, he would have 
been prepared to meet the numerous opposers; 
but he found himself unable to serve the cause of 
liberty and slavery at the same time, and so, to 
save his word of promise, he did bring in "the 
bill," when he well knew it was impossible to carry 
it under the then existing corruptions. 

In the farce here played, under the manage- 
ment of that youthful renegade, Pitt, we have 
a fair specimen of the way in which the English 
have been treated. But there is a time rapidly 
approaching when the supporters of despotism 
cannot thus delude their countrymen. The whole 
nest of court sycophants, however, seem deter- 
mined rather to see England reduced to a state 
of the most grievous bondage, than imagine one of 
their own ill-gotten acres endangered, or the least 
of their absurd and exclusive privil^es called in 


question. But are such creatures, their imagined 
interests, and affected opinions, to triumph over 
the views of the most virtuous patriots and wisest 
men of the present age ? Forbid it, Justice ! 

The year 1786 was ushered in under some 
peculiar circumstances of distress and alarm. The 
king was evidently declining in health, and strong 
signs of imbecility were apparent. He positively 
refused to see the prince upon the subject of 
his debts, and was otherwise much distracted at 
the recollection of various impositions upon the 
public, which might have been avoided, if, in 
the moment of necessity, he had explained himself 
fully to the nation, and pressed for an amelioration 
of all unnatural and uncivilised acts of Parliament, 
detrimental to the peace, welfare, and happiness of 
the sovereign and the subject. 

In July, the prince was so beset with appeals 
from his numerous creditors, that, partly to silence 
them, and partly to induce the House to pay his 
long-standing arrears of borrowed money, he 
announced his intention to give up his establish- 
ment, and, out of his annual income of fifty 
thousand pounds, to reserve ten thousand, and 
appropriate forty thousand for the benefit of his 

In the early part of this year, the prince was 
married to Mrs. Fitzherbert. Messrs. Fox, Sheri- 
dan, and Burke were present upon the occasion, 
as also were some of the relatives of the bride. 


After the ceremony, Mr. Fox handed them into a 
carriage, and they drove to Richmond, where they 
spent some days. In the interim, the queen was 
made acquainted with the marriage. Her Majesty 
requested an audience with the prince, which was 
immediately complied with. The queen insisted 
on being told if the news of his marriage were 
correct. "Yes, madam," replied he, "and not 
any force under heaven shall separate us. If his 
Majesty had been as firm in acknowledging his 
marriage, he might now have enjoyed life, instead 
of being a misanthrope, as he is. But I beg, fur- 
ther, that my wife be received at court, and 
proportionately as your Majesty receives her, and 
pays her attention, from this time, so shall I 
render my attentions to your Majesty. The lady 
I have married is worthy of all homage, and my 
very confidential friends, with some of my wife's 
relations, only, witnessed our marriage. Have you 
not always taught me to consider myself heir 
to the first sovereignty in the world ? where, then, 
will exist any risk of obtaining a ready concur- 
rence from the House in my marriage ? I hope, 
madam, a few hours' reflection will satisfy you 
that I have done my duty in following this 
impulse of my inclinations, and therefore I wait 
your Majesty's commands, feeling assured you 
would not wish to blast the happiness of your 
favourite prince." The queen presumed it would 
prove her best policy to signify her acquiescence to 


the prince's wishes, and the interview terminated 
without any further explanation or remonstrance ; 
nevertheless, the substance of the interview was 
immediately communicated to Mr. Pitt. The ex- 
travagant expenditure of the prince, at this period, 
was so increased, that he frequently promised cent, 
per cent, for advances of cash. 

The Duke of Richmond, this year, proposed to 
erect fortifications all over England. Monstrous 
as this attempt to enslave the country must appear, 
the power of Pitt brought the division of the 
House of Commons on the bill exactly even, so 
that the Speaker was obliged, by his conscience, to 
give his casting vote against so traitorous an 
affair. The establishment of a sinking fund was 
next brought forward ; and, on a surplus of taxes 
appearing, amounting to nine hundred thousand 
pounds, new taxes were levied on the plea of mak- 
ing up this sum one million, which, with compound 
interest, was to be invariably applied to the reduc- 
tion of the national debt. 

In the year 1787 the queen received the wife 
of the prince (Mrs. Fitzherbert) in the most 
courteous manner in public. The mental illness 
of the king became now apparent to those around 
him, but it was not spoken of publicly. 

In April, Mr. Newnham, member for the city 
of London, gave notice that he should bring for- 
ward a motion, the intent of which was, "To 
address the king, in order to procure his appro- 


bation to relieve the Prince of Wales from all 
embarrassments of a pecuniary nature," to which 
he hoped the House would cordially agree. This 
announcement created much conversation, as well 
it might ; and Mr. Newnham was earnestly solicited 
to withdraw his motion, lest its results should do 
injury to the state, and be productive of other 
inconvenience and mischief. The minister (Pitt) 
said, "that if Mr. Newnham persevered in press- 
ing his motion upon the notice of the House, he 
should be driven to make disclosures of circum- 
stances, which otherwise he believed it to be his 
imperative duty to conceal." Mr. Rolle (member 
for Devonshire) considered that an investigation 
of this matter involved many questions of conse- 
quence, which would affect both Church and state. 
Messrs. Fox and Sheridan, with some other private 
acquaintances of the prince, were bold in their 
language, and replied that "the prince did not 
fear any investigation of his conduct ; and that 
respect or indulgence, by an affected tenderness 
or studied ambiguity, would be disagreeable to 
the wishes and feelings of his Royal Highness." 
A few days after this debate, Mr. Fox called 
the attention of the House to the strange and 
extraordinary language used by Mr. Rolle, saying 
"that he presumed those remarks were made in 
reference to the base and malicious calumny 
which had been propagated out-of-doors by the 
enemies of the prince, in order to depreciate his 


character, and injure him in the opinion of the 
country." Mr. RoUe replied to this by saying 
that, "though the marriage could not have been 
accomplished under the formal sanction of the 
law, yet, if it existed as a fact, it ought to be 
satisfactorily cleared up, lest the most alarming 
consequences should be the result." Mr. Fox, 
in reply, said "that he not only denied the 
calumny in question, with respect to the effect 
of certain existing laws, but he also denied the 
marriage i« toto^ adding, "though he well knew 
the matter was illegal under every form of statute 
provided, yet he took that opportunity to assert, 
it never did happen.*' Mr. Rolle again asked, 
" Do you, sir, speak from direct or indirect author- 
ity } " Mr. Fox replied, " From direct authority." 
The House was now anxious that Mr. Rolle should 
express his satisfaction ; but he positively and de- 
terminately refused, " as he wished every member 
of the House to judge for himself." Now mark 
the result. Mr. Sheridan (the bottle-companion 
of the prince) rose and declared, warmly, "that 
if Mr. Rolle would not be satisfied, or put the 
matter into some train for his further satisfaction, 
his opinion was, the House ought to resolve, that 
it was seditious and disloyal to propagate reports 
injurious to the prince." But notice Mr. Pitt's 
reply, who rose, and protested against an attack 
upon the freedom of speech in that House. Mr. 
Pitt, indeed, could do no less than stop the in- 


quiry; for if it had proceeded to any greater 
length, the legitimacy of the prince might have 
been doubted ! 

The prince again sought advice to shield him- 
self from his various opponents, whose imperti- 
nent, yet honest expressions, might prove an 
alloy to his character, and render void all his 
pretensions to even common honesty. His Royal 
Highness deigned to consult some persons of con- 
sequence, but he could not receive any advice 
equal to his wishes. At length, he saw the queen, 
and partly explained his difficulties and debts, con- 
cluding his remarks by these threatening words : 
"Unless the king suggests his desire for the 
payment of these debts, I will explain all this 
state mystery ; and I would receive a shot from 
a musket, in preference to the galling insults 
which I well know the kingdoms infer from these 
shameful arrears." Again the state secrets oper- 
ated. Again was truth to be hidden in a napkin. 
The prince retired from the audience; but the 
queen was no sooner disengaged than Mr. Pitt 
was announced and introduced. The interview 
was short, but decisive, and the minister departed 
on a mission to the prince at Carlton House. 
There he promised that his Royal Highness 
should immediately receive means to discharge 
his debts, and accordingly, on the very next day, 
a message was laid before the House, and an 
address voted to the king, to request him to grant 


out of the " civil list " the sum of one hundred 
and sixty-one thousand pounds, to discharge the 
debts of George, called Prince of Wales, with 
an additional sum of twenty thousand pounds to 
finish the repairs of Carlton Palace. When this 
infamous proposition was made, distress and 
wretchedness were at an alarming height. But 
the king was more an object of pity than of 
blame. Royalty, to him, was a deceitful bauble. 
Those who beheld it at a distance saw nothing 
but greatness, splendour, and delight ; but, could 
they have examined it closely, they would have 
found toil, perplexity, and care, its constant com- 

The king was now fast exchanging the bloom 
of youth for the languor of age. He knew his 
duty was to repress calumny and falsehood, and 
to support innocence and truth ; and not only to 
abstain from doing evil, but to exert himself in 
every way to do good, by preventing the mis- 
chiefs evil counsellors might devise. Yet the 
state secrets kept him from acting as his heart 
dictated, and his mind soon lost all its vigour. 

The prince from this time was sure of the 
attainment of his wishes, if within the power of 
the queen to bestow ; and, from this conquest, he 
gave loose rein to the impetuous desires of his 
wayward inclinations. Splendid f^tes were given, 
money was lavished upon the most insignificant 
and indecorous occasions ; virtue openly insulted 



in every possible shape; and the man who was 
expected shortly to reign over the destiny of mil- 
lions was frequently exhibited to his friends as an 
unprincipled libertine, a notorious gamester, and 
an ungrateful son. But the rank of royal distinc- 
tion, and the means he possessed to gratify his 
lusts (being devoid of all positive integrity upon 
many points) were sufficient causes of excuse in 
the estimation of himself and his minions. His 
graceful bow and ensnaring address led many 
good-natured people into a belief that he was 
really an honest man and a gentleman. 


The King's Health Declines — An Enviable Position — Defeated 
Air-drawn Schemes — Burke and Fox — A Large Salary — 
Misfortunes of the Royal Bom — National Debt — Slavery 
and Debate — Parliamentary Introduction — Twenty Millions 
— Newgate Ruffians — A Degenerate Prince — Vivacious 
Acquiescence — A Refractory Epistle — More Correspond- 
ence — Queenly Cares. 

ROM the commencement of the year 
1788 the king's health again declined. 
His mind appeared full of gloomy ap- 
prehensions and forebodings ; sometimes he uttered 
the most incoherent language ; then, dissolving in 
tears, would ask after the health of the several 
members of his family, and especially of his 
youngest daughter, to whom he was more par- 
ticularly attached. This state of aberration was, 
however, strictly concealed from the public as 
long as possible by the queen. Here, again, 
mark her German policy. Fearing she could 
not much longer conceal the king's indisposi- 
tion, she determined to consult her favourite 
minister, and they resolved upon a proposition 
to give to the queen's care the charge of his 
Majesty's person, presuming that step was finally 
needful, as by its adoption only could she retain 



an opportunity of exercising complete control over 
her afflicted husband. On the reassembling of 
Parliament, therefore, the project of the queen 
was brought forward by Pitt, who, possessing 
a decided majority, passed what resolutions he 
pleased. He contended, in opposition to Fox, 
that the Prince of Wales had no more right to 
the regency than he had. The debates upon this 
subject were long and warm, but Pitt and the 
queen finally triumphed. The care of the king's 
person and the disposition of the royal household 
was to be committed to her Majesty, who would, 
by this means, be vested with the patronage of 
four hundred places, amongst which were the great 
offices of lord steward, lord chamberlain, and mas- 
ter of the horse. These " loaves and fishes " 
offered the queen a fine opportunity of exercising 
her tyranny and further increasing her power. 

Let us here digress a little, to reflect upon the 
enviable state in which her Majesty was placed at 
this period. 

Behold, then, the Queen of England in the 
enjoyment of health, surrounded with all the lux- 
uries of life, knowing the intricacies of state in- 
famy, and anxious to hold the reins of government 
in her own hands, constantly closeted with the 
minister — alone! his years not half so many as 
those of his royal mistress. See her confiding in 
his secrecy, submitting her opinions for his deci- 
sion, and knowing that herself and her family are 


in his power. The man who, after this retrospect, 
pronounces there never was a false step or a devi- 
ation from rectitude, we venture to say is but very 
little acquainted with humanity. It is also well 
known to more than one or two individuals that 
the Prince of Wales dared to jest with her Maj- 
esty upon the occasional private interviews she 
held with this minister ; and his Royal Highness 
was once seriously sent from her presence, in 
consequence of a trifling discovery he made. It 
therefore seemed the more requisite that the 
appearance of a rigid decorum must exist at 
court ; consequently, if any lady had been known 
to violate those bounds, she must be excluded 
from royal favour, and never again enter the pre- 
cincts of the palace. Her Majesty, it will be 
perceived from this, knew how to put on the 
garb of virtue, if she possessed it not. Our love 
of impartiality, however, obliges us to give an in- 
stance contrary to the general edict of the queen. 
Her Majesty was made fully acquainted with Mrs. 
Fitzherbert's history, and therefore knew that this 
lady had been left a widow — twice ; and that she 
afterward accepted the protection of the Marquis 
Bellois, which intimacy was of considerable dura- 
tion. Yet, as soon as the prince married her, 
she was a general visitant at court, and received 
the most especial and unlimited polite attentions 
from the queen. Let this example suffice to show 
her Majesty's scrupulous delicacy. 


In March, 1789, the king was declared conva- 
lescent, so as to be able to resume his duties and 
defeat those air-drawn schemes of power which 
his queen was about to assume. 

The insulted sovereign thus freed the people 
for a time from the artful stratagems and devices 
arising from the chamel house of oppression. 

It is certain that his Majesty was free from all 
violent paroxysms, and generally manifested a quiet 
and unobtrusive disposition in all things. But then 
this was the utmost of his improvement. Reason's 
empire was fatally shaken, and the recollection of 
the past incapacitated him for forming an opinion 
either upon the present or the future. 

The queen, in the meantime, resolved not to be 
entirely debarred of her prospects of patronage ; 
for, under the specious disguise of kingly author- 
ity, her Majesty gave appointments and honours 
to the hirelings around her, and carried " majori- 
ties " whenever she pleased. 

It was not deemed prudent that the king should 
open the House in person ; therefore, the chan- 
cellor delivered the speech in the name of his 

During this session, Mr. Wilberforce pleaded 
ably for the abolition of West Indian slavery, 
though to very little advantage. 

Some excesses of an unhappy description were 
practised by the Duke of York ; but they were 
passed over without any public punishment or pa- 



rental rebuke, although a family of high respecta- 
bility suffered the loss of their only daughter, a 
most beautiful and accomplished girl, nearly twenty 
years of age. She was a victim of the duke's sen- 
suality, and destroyed herself by poison soon after- 
ward ; such were the extreme sentiments of honour 
and virtue entertained by her. Some of her family 
yet live to mourn her loss and regret the privileges 
of royalty. 

In this year a revolution broke out in France, 
and innumerable lives were lost. The opposite 
views which Burke and Fox took of this event 
dissolved the friendship that had so long existed 
between them. 

In February, 1790, the printer of The Times 
newspaper was fined one hundred pounds for a 
libel on the Prince of Wales, and the like sum for 
a libel on the equally illustrious seducer, the Duke 
of York. If a verdict had been given otherwise, 
royalty would have been humbled. 

In this year, also, a most remarkable occurrence 
transpired. A very respectable clergyman was 
induced to marry two persons upon an extreme 
emergency, without their obtaining a license or 
the publishing of banns. The clergyman was 
tried at Leicester for this offence, and sentenced 
to be transported for fourteen years. Many ap- 
peals were made, in a quiet and peaceable manner, 
to the judge. Expostulations upon the dispropor- 
tion of the punishment were also made by various 


classes of society ; but, alas ! the happiness of the 
subject was destroyed, while the higher authorities 
remained not only unimpeached but defended. 

During this session, the House was solicited to 
supply extra sums for the expenditure of the secret 
service, to which, however, many voices were raised 
in opposition. The prince and his former friends 
and companions were now apparently in a state of 
disunion, as each one appeared dissatisfied with the 

Mr. Fox proved the most unremitting member 
of the House in the discharge of his duties, oppos- 
ing the increase of the national debt, and the impo- 
sition of new taxes. The salary of the Speaker of 
the House of Commons, however, was advanced 
to six thousand pounds, remonstrance proving of 
no avail. 

About this time, the prince and two of his 
brothers became so embarrassed by their impru- 
dent conduct, that they found it expedient to 
resort to some measure for the attainment of 
means to satisfy the clamorous demands of their 
creditors. Jews and money-brokers were tried, 
but to no effect ; and their last resource seemed 
to be by obtaining the amount desired upon their 
respective or joint bonds. Every likely person 
was solicited to grant the loan ; yet, after a long 
and mortifying attempt, all their endeavours proved 
fruitless. A large interest was offered, and had 
the parties been persons of indubitable integrity, 


many of their countrymen would have gladly lent 
their money upon such terms ; but former inaccu- 
racies paved the way for future misgivings. At 
length the sum was furnished, from foreign houses 
chiefly, — the amount of which was one million. 
The princes received nearly half a million imme- 
diately, and the other portion was to be paid ac- 
cording to the stipulation, the interest being fixed 
at six per cent. This interest, however, was not 
paid upon its becoming due; consequently there 
was a suspicion of unfair dealing; but of this 
subject we must treat anon. 

A trifling dispute with Spain this year cost the 
country three hundred thousand pounds. 

The year 1791 was a period of continual debate 
and of harassing vexation, both at home and abroad. 
In the meanwhile, the prince was engrossed in his 
pursuits of pleasure, ever searching after variety 
in every possible shape. Such also were the pur- 
suits of his royal brothers. 

It now becomes our painful duty to speak of 
the females of this " illustrious family." 

It is one of the unnatural distinctions of royalty, 
and which is often fatal to the happiness of soci- 
ety, that their ways are not the ways of the other 
sons and daughters of humanity. Though royal 
blood is not of itself considered a barrier against 
marriage, the very few persons that are eligible to 
marry a king's daughter, besides the unsurmount- 
able difficulties which religion opposes to such 


unions, makes them almost amount to absolute 

It would argue a callous heart not to feel the 
force of the above reflection, while speaking of 
the royal daughters of Queen Charlotte. They 
were at this period in the bloom of youth, in all 
the glowing exuberance of health, but from the 
real enjoyment of which the miserable etiquette 
of regal splendour, and the feigned prudery of 
their mother, debarred them. In the full meridian 
of their state, possessing every exterior advantage 
calculated to exdte vulgar envy and admiration, 
these royal ladies were less blessed, in reality, 
than the daughters of peasants, who were free 
to marry the men of their choice. When this 
secluded state of royalty is considered, the reflect- 
ing mind will feel disposed to exercise charity and 
forbearance ; but the subjects of our present notice 
partook of rather more of female frailty than ought 
to have been allowed. We have heard, indeed, of 
the most desperate excesses committed by royal 
ladies, and are ourselves acquainted with an accou- 
cheur^ who officiated imder a circumstance of a 
lamentable kind, independent of the birth of Cap- 
tain Garth. Alas ! were the crimes of the court 
of Charlotte but painted in their true colours, 
how would virtue blush ! how would honesty 
be abashed ! how would credulity be staggered ! 
The slightest deviation from honour in a trades- 
man's daughter is generally punished by eternal 


disgrace. For the present we must leave these 
very painful reflections ; though we fear truth will 
compel us to renew the subject. 

The revenue was, as usual, unequal to meet the 
extravagancies of the royal family, and so was 
added every succeeding year an increase to the 
already immense " national debt." 

The queen became now much disturbed by the 
dissatisfaction so generally expressed by all classes 
of society, and she therefore resolved to give the 
minister her opinion upon the subject. Mr. Ktt 
accordingly presented himself, and was received 
with courteous attention. The queen expressed 
her fears of an ill ultimatum, unless some plan 
could be proposed to satisfy the desires of the 
people. After various propositions were made and 
rejected, it was deemed prudent to resist any and 
every motion which might be made in the Com- 
mons for reform in the state of the representa- 
tion, and to rule over the people by force, if found 

The House met early in the year 1792, and the 
king announced the marriage of his second son, 
Frederick, with a daughter of the King of Prussia. 
In March, Mr. Pitt proposed to settle thirty thou- 
sand pounds per annum upon their Royal High- 
nesses. The opposition remonstrated, but the 
motion was finally carried. 

Much interest was excited upon the subject of 
the slave trade; and Mr. Wilberforce lu-ged the 


abolition of it in very warm and generous lan- 
guage. Mr. Pitt was eloquent on this occasion, 
and pleaded, most animatedly, in favour of its 
entire abolition; but the minister was not sin- 
cere. A series of resolutions were ultimately 
agreed upon, and sent up to the lords for their 

The Duke of Clarence now commenced his par- 
liamentary career, by violently declaiming against 
the abolition of slavery and its advocates. This 
caused it to be delayed, and the guilt of Britain 

The queen appeared vexed at this circumstance, 
as she had imagined such a concession would have 
given great satisfaction, without decreasing her 
influence at home. 

In a private conversation with an illustrious per- 
son, some days after this defeat, Mr. Wilberforce 
said, '' He did not believe the queen or the minis- 
ter were truly desirous of the abolition of slavery ; 
for, if it had been intended by them to be carried, 
they would have secured it in the Upper House." 

After thus trifling with the wishes of the peo- 
ple, it appeared probable that dissatisfaction might 
arise amongst the middle classes of society; to 
provide against which, the establishment of a 
new police for Westminster was proposed and 

The year 1793 commenced with the usual as- 
pects, and power appeared to have had a harden- 


ing influence upon the minds of statesmen. The 
crisis seemed near, that some salutary and healing 
measure of reform in the state of the representa- 
tion must be adopted ; for it was imprudent any 
longer to be silent on the subject. Mr. Grey, 
therefore, moved the question in the House, on 
the 30th of April, and was supported ably by Mr. 
Erskine and others; but the minister (Mr. Pitt) 
repelled the motion, and spoke as warmly for its 
withdrawal as he had formerly spoken in its de- 
fence, and of its necessity. The result was preju- 
dicial to the rights and privileges of free-bom 
men ; the motion was dismissed, and a royal proc- 
lamation issued against all seditious writings and 
correspondences, — plainly proving that the Crown 
needed the aid of spies and informers, in order 
to continue its baneful and injurious influence over 
a deluded and degraded people. Thus was an at- 
tempt to obtain justice defeated by a combination 
of overbearing tyranny and oppression ; and thus 
was the " state automaton *' moved at pleasure by 
the secret springs of court intrigue and infamy, 
regulated by the queen. One extreme generally 
leads to another, and so by degrees the freedom 
of the constitution was changed to tyrannical fet- 
ters, under the assumed title of " improvements in 
our code of laws," whilst distress continued, and 
expostulation, as usual, proved fruitless. 

Mr. Pitt, at this time, through a private chan- 
nel, communicated his desire to see Mr. Canning, 


who of course promptly attended. The premier 
complimented Mr. Canning on his reputation as 
a scholar and a speaker, and stated that, if he 
concurred in the policy which government was 
then pursuing, arrangements would be made to 
bring him into Parliament. These few words will 
briefly explain to future generations the manner 
of introducing members to Parliament by this 

Previous to this honourable offer, Mr. Canning 
belonged to what was then termed " the opposition 
faction," and among those who were the most vio- 
lent in their opinions he had been considered and 
spoken of as their prot^gi. But a seat in Parlia- 
ment from the hands of a prime minister, who, 
however haughty and reserved in his general man- 
ners, had perhaps, for that very reason, a peculiar 
power in fixing himself in the minds of those 
whom he wished to please, was a tempting offer 
to a young man, conscious of superior talent, but 
rendered by his situation in life agreeably alive 
to such flattering and powerful notice. Our read- 
ers will hardly feel surprised, then, at his after 
vacillating conduct, which we shall have occasion 
frequently to notice. 

The Prince of Wales now veered in his political 
expressions, and deserted his former acknowledged 
principles, in obedience to the wishes of the queen. 
The other male branches of the royal family were 
revelling in the vortex of voluptuousness ; and so 


expensive were their amours and gallantries, in 
addition to their gambling transactions, that they 
were continually involved in debt, and, for momen- 
tary relief, borrowed sums of every person willing 
to run the risk of a loan, or afraid to incur the 
royal displeasure. 

The king was ignorant of the most dishonour- 
able transactions in which his sons were so deeply 
involved ; what he did know was sufficient to make 
him miserable. Their supplies and income were 
to an enormous extent ; yet his Majesty was aware 
that the Duke of York's horses and carriage were 
seized, while going down Piccadilly, and his Royal 
Highness obliged to walk home. 

Declaration of hostilities was announced between 
Great Britain and France, and the year's supply 
amounted to twenty millions. To provide this 
enormous sum, extra taxes were again levied upon 
the people. 

We enter upon the year 1794 with sorrow and 
indignation, as it was the commencement of an all- 
important era in national affairs. The king beheld 
the critical state of the empire with much sorrow 
and disquietude. The extravagant and imprudent 
conduct of his sons also acted as a canker upon his 
heart. In vain did he endeavour to represent to 
them that, to be worthy of holding their rank in 
such a great nation, they ought to lay aside the 
follies which had so long been practised by them ; 
and as earnestly, yet as vainly, did he press them 


to retire from the society of voluptuous acquain- 
tances, with whom he too well knew they were so 
deeply involved, in various ways. 

At this period of our history, we are grieved to 
record the tyrannical acts of government, in ap- 
prehending a number of persons on the charge 
of treason. Some of our readers will, doubtless, 
recollect the glorious acquittal of Hardy, Tooke, 
and Thelwall ; but there were others, less fortunate. 
We would rather have been Claudius or Caligula, 
Nero, Tiberius, or the Christian, blood-stained 
Constantine, than the man who, in cold blood, 
could deliberately sign a warrant against those 
patriotic martyrs, Muir, Skirving, Margaret, 
Palmer, and Gerald, whose only crime consisted 
in having supported Mr. Pitt's own original system 
of reform. 

Our readers, at this distance of time, will reflect 
with amazement and indignation that, on the 8th 
of February, 1794, the four first-named citizens, 
without a moment's previous notice, were surprised 
in their beds by the Newgate ruffians, chained and 
handcuffed like the vilest felons, and thus con- 
veyed to Woolwich, where they were sent on board 
a transport ready to receive them. A few hours 
afterward, the vessel dropped down the river ; but, 
during the short interval it remained at Woolwich, 
all communication was cut ofiF between them and 
their friends. Even the wife of Margaret was 
denied admission to him. Such were the positive 


orders of that illiberal and corrupt minister, — Mr. 
Henry Dundas. 

Let us hope that the day is for ever past when 
men can be thus treated for merely giving vent to 
their complaints and sufferings. It is the prerog- 
ative of affliction to complain, more sacred and nat- 
ural than any titles or immunities which privileged 
persons enjoy. And whenever force is employed 
against argument and reason, though the contest 
may be unequal, depend upon it that the cause of 
truth will ultimately prevail. 

At this period the Prince of Wales was involved 
in more than six hundred thousand pounds, beside 
bonds and bills, signed by him, to a very enormous 
amount ; and, finding himself unable to procure any 
further sums, he applied to the queen for assistance 
in this extremity. Her Majesty referred him to his 
father, and pressed him to yield to any advice which 
the king might suggest, or any plan he might rec- 

A time was appointed for an interview, and the 
father and son entered upon these very distressing 
and dishonourable transactions. After much de- 
liberation, the king observed " that it was utterly 
impossible to ask Parliament for any relief, as it 
was all the minister could now do to keep the 
wheels of state in motion ; and, even to do that, 
it required immense loans to be raised, to make up 
the deficiency of the year's current expenses." As 
a last resource, the king proposed that the printe 


should many, and that a lady of royal birth be 
selected, as agreeable to the inclinations of the 
prince as possible. Upon such an event, the min- 
ister would, no doubt, furnish means for his liber- 
ation, and a sufficient income for the additional 
expenses attendant upon such an alliance. The 
prince received the opinion of his father with varied 
sensations, and requested time to think upon the 
proposition, when he would announce the result 
of his cogitations. 

Alas ! how much are kings to be pitied ! If 
their principles and intentions be virtuous, what 
difficulties have they to surmount, what sorrows 
to endure ! This was a trying period for George 
the Third. On the one hand, he saw the impro- 
priety and cruelty of marriage merely for state 
policy, and more particularly so in the present 
instance, as he considered the prince's marriage 
with Mrs. Fitzherbert solemn and binding in the 
sight of heaven, though certainly in direct opposi- 
tion to the law of the country, which was in oper- 
ation at the time it was solemnised. On the other 
hand, it appeared that a royal marriage was an 
event that would give great satisfaction to the 
people, and might, perhaps, reclaim the prince 
from those considerable errors and obnoxious pur- 
suits in which he was so deeply entangled ; for he 
associated with some of the most unprincipled char- 
acters, of whom any person of morality or common 
decency would certainly have been ashamed 


Here again the gewgjaw of royal parade was in- 
tended to entrap the admiration of the ignorant. 
The vain pomp and pageantries of courts and the 
splendour of fortune have ever been an ignis fatuus 
to seduce the people to their ruin. They have, 
alas ! too often served as a useful shelter to every 
excess of folly, every enormity of crime ; while the 
deepest distresses and the most urgent wants have 
not been allowed as an extenuation for the slightest 
transgression, though committed to satisfy the crav- 
ing exigencies of famished nature. Had a private 
individual acted as this prince was about to do, 
would he not have become an outcast from his 
family, and would not the whole world have aban- 
doned him ? Yet, although the prince's example 
was ten thousand times more contagious, all the 
breaches of faith of which he had been guilty 
scarcely received the slightest animadversion. 
But so it was ; common interest united even those 
who were disunited by particular discordances, and 
the seeming harmony of the royal family may un- 
doubtedly be inferred to have arisen from their 
equal interest in the success of the piece. Their 
private differences were apparently lost in the im- 
mensity of the secrets by which the state chain 
was riveted, as if it were by adamant. 

We must not suppose his Majesty was all this 
time ignorant of the situation of his nephew, the 
only child of his brother Edward ; so far from that 
being the case, he had caused him to be brought 


up privately, and was regular in the discharge of 
the yearly expenses incurred on his account at 
Eton. The queen presumed that her children were 
safely seated, so long as the king's first marriage 
should be concealed, and therefore did not bestow 
many thoughts upon the happiness or misery, for- 
tune or misfortune, life or death, of this much- 
injured youth. Does not nature revolt at this 
barbarity, this secret unfeeling conduct of the 
queen ? What mother could know a similar case, 
and not afford all the generous tenderness of sym- 
pathy to mitigate the losses this orphan had sus- 
tained, not only of fortune, but of the fostering 
care of both his parents? 

The complicated wickedness of the court 
seemed now nearly approaching its cUmax. De- 
ception had been added to deception, until, to 
complete the delusion, another victim must neces- 
sarily be added, in the person of the Princess 
Caroline of Brunswick. 

After conferences with Mrs. Fitzherbert, the 
queen, and a few others, closely interested in the 
affair, had taken place, the prince acquainted his 
father with his submission to the royal will, and re- 
quested to know whom his Majesty would recom- 
mend for his bride. The king suggested his niece, 
the daughter of his sister, the Duchess of Brunswick, 
for whose acceptance he urged the prince to send 
his miniature, and other formalities, usual on such 
occasions. The prince, with apparent vivacity. 


acquiesced ; but his Majesty thought that his son's 
language wanted sincerity. 

The evening was spent in revelry and debauch- 
ery by the prince and his companions, and his 
Royal Highness swore, " I wfll marry the Princess 
of Brunswick, which," said he, " wfll be no marriage 
at all, and desert her, of which I will give her 
timely notice." The miniature was painted flat- 
teringly, and the following letter from the prince 
accompanied it to his intended wife : 

Copy of a Utter written to the Princess Caroline of 
Brunswick^ by George^ Prince of Wales. 

" Madam : — The king my father, whom I highly 
respect and esteem, has just announced to me that 
your hand is destined for me. I am obliged, by 
the imperious force of circumstances, to own that 
this intelligence has thrown me into despair, and 
my candour does not allow me to conceal my sen- 
timents from you. I hope that when you are ac- 
quainted with them, you will aid me in breaking 
the ties which would unite us only to render us 
unhappy ; and which wUl be in your power to op- 
pose, since I am unable to do so. You, madam, 
are adored by your parents ; I am aware that they 
have allowed you the liberty of refusing all the 
princes who have been proposed to you in mar- 
riage; refuse mc also. I conjure you in the name 
of pity, to which I know you are no stranger. You 


do not know me, madam ; you therefore can have no 
cause to lament my loss. Learn, then, the secret 
and unhappy situation of the prince whom they 
wish you to espouse. I cannot love you ; I cannot 
make you happy ; my heart has long ceased to be 
free. She who possesses it is the only woman to 
whom I could unite myself agreeably to my incli- 
nations. You would find in me a husband who 
places all his affections upon another. If this 
secret, which I name to you in confidence, does 
not cause you to reject me ; if ambition, or any 
other motive of which I am ignorant, cause you 
to condescend to the arrangements of my family, 
learn that, as soon as you shall have given an heir 
to the throne, I will abandon you, never to meet 
you more in public. I will then attach myself to 
that lady whom I love, and whom I will not leave. 
Such is, madam, my last and irrevocable resolu- 
tion ; if you are the victim of it, you will be a will- 
ing victim, and you cannot accuse me of having 
deceived you. I am, madam, with great truth, 

" Yours sincerely, 

"George P." 

After reading this very curious epistle, the 
reader may presume that the princess was indis- 
creet in her acceptance of the hand of a prince 
who so boldly professed himself averse to the 
union ; but the following letters of George the 
Third to herself and her mother (the king's sister) 


which accompanied the one of the prince, will 
afford some explanation of her conduct : 

Copy of a Letter to Caroline^ Princess of Bruns- 
wick from her uncUf George the Third. 

"1 794. 

" My dearest Niece Caroline : — It has 
afforded me very much pleasure to hear, by the 
means of my son Frederick of York, that you 
merit my very best regard. I have no doubt you 
have frequently heard of my very great and affec- 
tionate regard for your dear mother, my sister; 
and I assure you I love her daughter for her sake. 
I am well persuaded that my dear niece will not 
refuse the pressing request of myself and her 
mother with respect to an alliance with my son 
George, Prince of Wales, which I earnestly de- 
sire may be arranged to take place as speedily as 
possible. I promise, most solemnly promise, that 
I will be your friend and father upon every occa- 
sion, and I entreat you to comply with this ardent 
desire of my heart, that my agitated mind may 
once more be composed. 

" I have explained to my sister the probable dif- 
ficulties which my son George may mention ; but 
they must not have any weight in your mind and 
conclusions. I beg you not to refuse this pressing 
petition of your most 

** Sincere and affectionate uncle, 

"George R." 


<< P. S. Do not delay a reply an hour longer 
than can be avoided. 

" To Caroline^ Princess of Brunswick^^ etc. 

Copy of a Letter to the Duchess of Brunswick^ from 
her brother^ George the Third. 

"My dear Sister: — I have endeavoured to 
excite and promote in the mind of my son George 
a desire to espouse my dear niece Caroline. This, 
I am aware, he will only consent to as a prudent 
step by which his debts may be paid. I will trust 
to your influence with Caroline that she may not 
be offended with anything he pleases to say. He 
may please to plead that he is already married ! — 
and I fear he will resort to any measures rather 
than an honourable marriage. But, as, in my for- 
mer letters, I have explained my wishes upon this 
subject, I therefore need not now repeat them. 
Tell my dear niece she must never expect to find 
a mother or friend in the queen ; but I will be her 
friend to my latest breath. Give me your support, 
my sister, and prevail upon my niece Caroline at 
all hazards. 

" Yours affectionately, 

" George R." 

A courier was despatched with these prelimi- 
naries of a royal marriage, and the prince again 
sank into the depths of vice. The queen saw her 
path was rather difficult, and feared for the con- 


sequences ; but she resolved to exert every thought 
to devise the surest plan for future safety. Her 
Majesty did not assist the prince to any extent, 
because her purse was of the greatest utility to 
her personal safety, and therefore promises were 
chiefly given to the clamorous and ruined cred- 
itors, that, as soon as the prince was married, all 
debts would be dischai^ged. The reasons which 
prompted the parsimony of the queen were obvious 
to those who knew her plans, though not to the 
public She was aware of the slight tenure she 
held, and the Ulegality of her marriage ; the unac- 
counted-for death of the king's eldest brother; 
the uncertainty of the fate of his issue ; fears for 
his future public appeals, and her knowledge of 
the validity of his claims! Beside all this, the 
relatives of the legally married wife of the duke 
(Edward) were of more illustrious descent than 
even the queen herself ; and from them she stood 
in doubt, lest the untimely death of this lady and 
her husband, the unfortunate Duke of York, as 
well as the privacy of their offspring, should be 
brought forward in a public manner, or in any 
way which might reflect dishonour upon the in- 
fluence of the Crown. 


The Influence of Secrecy — A Ministerial Despot — Princess 
Caroline to Prince George — Preparations for the Marriage 
— A Princess SofiEers — Debauchery — '*A Fine Girl" — A 
Disastrous War — ** Truth Forbids Silence " — Machinations 
against the Princess — Ireland — Still Further Taxation — 
''The Pilot that Weathered the Storm" — An Increase in 
Income — Disproportionate Incomes. 

\OW much has guilt to fear from expo- 
sure by truth ! Secrecy was the minis- 
terial watchword then in vogue, and 
though fallacious and destructive, as experience has 
demonstrated the principle to be, yet the nation 
was cajoled by its influence, and even induced in- 
directly to sanction measures the most desperate 
and ruinous that imagination can depict. 

The hireling part of the press, notwithstanding, 
strove to eternise this awful and barbarous system, 
and thus assisted the minister to cherish the 
growth of ignorance. Indeed, it is an undeniable 
fact, that the corruption of government pervaded 
every branch of Mr. Pitt's administration ; but 
surely this minister must have been sometimes 
afraid that the people would discover the frauds 
and impositions practised upon them, and demand 
satisfaction. Mr. Pitt, indeed, was an apostate, 



who, at the beginning of his career, stood forth as 
the champion of the people's rights ; but no 
sooner had he gained possession of power, than 
he at once threw off the mask, deserted his bene- 
factors, who had trusted and exalted him, main- 
tained, with all his might, the utmost stretch of 
the royal prerogative, owned himself the unblush- 
ing advocate of influence and corruption, and the 
decided enemy of the human race. When we 
reflect on the obduracy, perfidy, and ingratitude 
of "this pilot that gathered the storm," in whose 
breast neither shame nor pity seldom found a 
residence, but as if dead to every noble passion of 
the soul, he first exhausted the resources of the 
nation by his imposition of taxes, and then en- 
slaved it by his politics ; when we reflect, we say, 
on the conduct of this man, Sejanus and Rufinus, 
profligate and cruel as they were, appear angels of 
light, and we cannot help feeling disgusted with 
the age that tolerated such a minister. Secure in 
his parliamentary majorities and the favours of his 
queen, he imagined the people at large mere non- 
entities, and set them at defiance, while he must 
have laughed at their tameness and stupidity- 
Did he not warmly commend the sentences of pro- 
scription, imprisonment, and transportation, passed 
against his countrymen solely for attempting to 
procure a reform of grievances, by the very same 
means which he had himself previously employed ? 
Did he not, when every really loyal subject in the 


realm was deploring the disgraces and defeats of 
the British arms, insult the people with affected 
serious congratulations on the successes that had 
been obtained by the allied powers, and the happy 
change that had taken place in their favour ? Yes, 
reader, these acts may be taken as specimens of 
the policy of the " heaven-born minister that weath- 
ered the storm," as a certain chancellor once im- 
prudently designated Mr. Pitt. 

The courier, bearing the despatches to the Prin- 
cess of Brunswick, arrived at the court of her 
father in October, where he delivered his packet, 
and was entertained with generous and courteous 
attention. The duke and duchess retired to peruse 
its contents, which they read with agitation ; and 
hope and fear strove tumultuously to gain an 
ascendency. The king's letter was considered, 
in a certain degree, explanatory of the follies of 
the prince, though it did not name any vices ; and 
as it also expressed a confident opinion, that, 
united to a person of amiability and worth, like 
the princess, all good would ensue, the parents 
of the princess were inclined to hope for a favour- 
able result from the alliance. The good opinion 
of the king, their brother, was an extra induce- 
ment to the fond and indulgent parents of Caroline 
to plead in behalf of her acceptance of this offer ; 
and all must admit their conduct to be natural 
and affectionate. 

The letter of the prince was soon after delivered 


by the duke to his daughter, accompanied by the 
remark, "I hope my dear Caroline will one day 
be the happy queen of a free and happy nation. 
Retire, my child, and, after thinking seriously, 
decide prudently." The princess retired, and read 
the strange epistle written by the prince. She 
knew not, for some considerable time, what to 
think, or how to decide. At length, after a few 
hours of rest and enjoyment, the courier departed. 
He arrived safely at St. James's, and delivered the 
following reply to the Prince of Wales : 

Copy of the Reply to George^ Prince of Wales^ front 
Caroline^ Princess of Brunswick, 

" My Lord and Cousin : — I cannot express to 
your Royal Highness the feelings of surprise which 
your letter has afforded me, neither can I rely 
entirely upon what it contains ; because the ac- 
companying letter of the good king, your father, 
is so very opposite to its meaning. I thought that 
the ties of relationship which exist between us 
would have obliged your Royal Highness to treat 
with delicacy and honour the princess whom your 
king destines for you. For my own part, my lord, 
I know my duty, and I have not the power or 
the wish to break the laws which are wished to be 
imposed upon me. I, therefore, have decided upon 
obeying the wishes of those who have the right 
to dispose of my person. I submit, at the same 
time, to the consequences with which your High- 


ness threatens me. But, if you could read that 
heart to which you impart such auguish, you would 
perhaps have feelings of remorse from this bar- 
barous treatment, in which your Royal Highness 
appears to boast. I am now resolved to await 
from time and our union the just regard I will 
endeavour to merit ; and I trust that your regret 
for what you have written will, in some measure, 
avenge the wrongs you have so wantonly commit- 
ted. Believe me, my lord, that I shall not cease 
to offer my prayers for the happiness of your Royal 
Highness ; mine will be perfect if I can contribute 
to yours. 

" I am, for life, your most devoted cousin, 

" Caroline Amelia of Brunswick." 

We have given this and the preceding letters 
solely with a view of forwarding the cause of 
truth, and shall leave our readers to draw their 
own inferences as to the propriety or impropriety 
of the conduct of the parties concerned. 

Early in the ensuing year, 1795, preparations 
were made, upon a moderate scale, to receive the 
Princess of Brunswick as the intended wife of the 
heir apparent. 

The prince was still as dissolute as ever, and 
associated with the very dregs of society, of both 
sexes. Yet this same personage was about to be 
allied, according to the outward usages of the 
Church, to a princess of the most opposite princi- 


pies and sentiments. Many times has he become 
the father of innocent victims, who were doomed 
to perish in a workhouse, or be consigned to a 
premature grave ! How improbable then was it, 
that his heart would ever feel affection for the 
issue of an honourable connection, — if it may be 
so called in this case, — more particularly when 
that was the last resource to extricate him from 
debt and disgrace ! Well, indeed, might his com- 
panions say, " The princess may hear, in the joyful 
peal (after her vows), the surer knell of her happi- 
ness." Too well the result proved the truth of 
their prophetic announcement. 

Previous to the arrival of Caroline, it was ar- 
ranged by the queen that persons of distinction, 
upon whom her Majesty could depend in this 
instance, should attend her Highness, and a selec- 
tion was made accordingly. The notorious Lady 
Jersey was one ; of her character and intriguing 
disposition, we need not say more than announce 
the fact that her favours had been at the com- 
mand of the prince for a considerable time. Her 
disposition was artful and cruel ; indeed, unless 
such qualities had been invested in her ladyship, 
the queen would not have given her orders in a 
manner so undisguised and bold. Cruelty and 
vice are always inseparable companions. 

At length, the princess arrived on these (to her) 
inhospitable shores. On the 8th of April, the 
formality of a marriage ceremony took place, at 

Ciifvlini' z/lnh'Ua Bi;ahcth, Princess of 


Photogravure from an fii^iravinj: by SchrooJor 


her Royal Highness said " that, after the candour 
with which I have explained myself, I certainly 
feel entitled to the respectful attentions of your 
Highness, and I cannot endure the insults I am 
continually receiving from your mistresses and 
coarse associates." This gentle remonstrance was 
repeated by this "all-accomplished gentleman" 
when he next met his half-drunken companions, 
and their infamy was heightened by maliciously 
abusing this much injured lady. 

The prince's yearly income was augmented at 
his marriage with his cousin to one hundred and 
twenty-five thousand pounds, besides having all 
his debts discharged. 

The princess now seldom saw her husband. 
His nights were spent in debauchery, and he 
was frequently carried to bed, totally unconscious 
of all around him. Gaming supplied his leisure 
hours, and scenes of immorality were the common 
routine of each succeeding day. Such were the 
deportment and character of the man, or monster, 
who was to be invested with power over millions 
of brave, generous, and industrious people. It 
was impossible for such a one to have retained 
in his confidence a single upright and conscientious 
person. The soul sickens at the retrospect ; but 
we must pursue the revolting subject. 

The king was, at this time, the only friend in 
whom the Princess of Wales could repose any 
confidence, and to him she unburdened herself 


unreservedly. His Majesty was much incensed at 
the indignation heaped upon the daughter of his 
sister, and, but for the apparent situation of his 
niece, he would have recommended severer meas- 
ures than he then thought prudent. 

In opposition to all remonstrance and advice, the 
prince gradually sunk deeper into the vortex of sen- 
suality, and very frequently expressed himself in 
high hopes that the princess would soon "be got 
rid of." He still remained ignorant of the confi- 
dence the princess had reposed in her uncle ; and 
well was it for her he was ignorant of it, as 
his passion was extreme, and rage might have 
gained such a preeminence as to have induced him 
to add another foul deed to his number. 

This fatal year, more than twenty-nine millions 
were required, eighteen of which were raised by 
loans. Here may be observed how progressively 
the " national debt " was incurred, partly for the 
immoderate extravagance of those who ought to 
have acted as models for imitation at home, and 
partly by unjust and destructive wars abroad, 
until Englishmen became anything and everything 
but a free people. The discontents of the tax- 
payers were loud and deep ; but the ministers 
heeded them not. 

On the 7th of January, 1796, the Princess of 
Wales was safely delivered of a daughter, whose 
birth, in some measure, assuaged the miseries of 
her forlorn condition. The Duke of Clarence 


might have very frequently repeated his expres- 
sions, delivered in the House of Lords in the 
preceding June, when he said, "Unless suitable 
provisions were made for the prince, the Princess 
of Wales, a lovely and amiable woman, must feel 
herself torn from her family (although her mother 
was the king's sister), removed from all her early 
connections," etc. Ah, William Henry, were you 
prepared to prove this to be a speech in favour of 
your cousin and sister-in-law ? Was it not only for 
the aggrandisement of your spendthrift brother ? 

To oblige her Majesty, the young princess was 
named Charlotte. But what a different character 
did the younger Charlotte prove from the elder! 
Oh, that so sweet a disposition and so noble a 
mind should have been crushed in the bud, and 
that, too, by one nearly allied to her by the ties of 
nature ! 

Those more immediately about the person of the 
Princess of Wales were best capable to form an 
opinion of her maternal tenderness, and of the 
prince's negligence. The proofs of affectionate 
solicitude on the part of the mother, contrasted 
with the indifference of the father, deserve public 
explanation. The first time the prince saw his 
child, his countenance was not in the least illumi- 
nated by any ray of pleasure, as he contented him- 
self by merely observing, " It is a fine girl." The 
princess afterward acknowledged her disappoint- 
ment, as she had hoped his heart was not entirely 


debased, or his sense of virtue altogether lost ; but 
this fond, this very natural, hope was doomed to 
disappointment, and while this desolate lady was 
nursing her tenderly beloved child, the prince was 
walking and riding out, openly and shamelessly, 
with Mrs. Fitzherbert and Lady Jersey. Would 
not the poor cottager have felt abashed to hear of 
his fellow labourer's similar conduct, even in the 
most humble station of life, who must, of neces- 
sity, be devoid of ten thousand advantages this 
personage had derived from birth and education } 
Yes, doubtless ; and he who could so act deserved 
no other appellation than that of a voluptuous 

It was much to be regretted, at this time, that 
all the very heavy taxation and increase of debt 
were said to be in consequence of the ** king's 
great predilection for the lavish expenditures of 
the royal family, and his anxious determination 
to continue the disastrous war." Such were not 
his Majesty's desires, but exactly the reverse; 
though, unfortunately, his opinions were always 
overruled by the queen. 

A formal separation took place this year be- 
tween the Prince and Princess of Wales, and cer- 
tainly her Royal Highness deserved much more 
general sympathy than she then experienced. The 
nobility appeared uncertain which side to espouse, 
and therefore, for want of principle to do that 
which their consciences said was right, they fell 


imperceptibly into error; besides which, it was 
indispensably necessary that those who wished 
to stand well with the queen and prince must 
withdraw from all intimacy with the Princess of 

The immense amount for the supply this year 
was above thirty-eight millions, — about twenty of 
which were raised by loans. 

In 1797 the heavy burdens imposed on the 
people to supply the insatiate thirst for war, and 
keep a gorgeous appearance at court, reduced the 
middle classes of people to want and distraction. 
While the prince and his fawning courtiers were 
revelling in every obscenity, and glutting them- 
selves with the prospect which still continued, that 
to-morrow would be more abundant, thousands — 
nay, millions — in England and Ireland were per- 
ishing for want of bread. During this unexampled 
period of sorrow, the conduct of the ministry 
proved them to be perfectly indifferent to the dis- 
tresses of the people. Splendid entertainments, 
at an immense expense, were frequently given, and 
the lofty halls of palaces rang with the loud shouts 
of conviviality and profanity. Such recitals may, 
to some persons, appear incredible, or too highly 
coloured ; but we well know they did occur, though 
we do not wish to shock the feelings of our 
readers by entering into the minutiae of the in- 
famous conduct practised by the Prince of Wales 
and his courtiers. Well might the prince, in his 


memorable letter to the princess in the preceding 
year, say, " Our inclinations are not suited to each 
other." He was correct ; they were not suited ; 
neither did the Princess Caroline ever desire they 
should be, because General Lee could testify that 
the prince had more propensities than propriety 

In this most pressing and trying case, when the 
mind of the Princess of Wales was wrought up to 
the greatest point of agony, she resolved upon 
an interview with the queen, when her Royal 
Highness told her that Carlton House could no 
longer be inhabited by her, as the infamous scenes 
she was too often obliged to witness were of a 
description so notoriously abominable that com- 
mon decency was grossly outraged. Her Majesty 
supported the right of the prince to choose his 
own associates, and at the same time stated, as 
her opinion, that it was very disagreeable to the 
prince to have her in town at all, and it was 
proper the princess should remove to some dis- 
tance agreeable to herself, where the prince might 
not be under the necessity of meeting her, when 
he had occasion to spend any time at the palace. 

It will readily be presumed the princess left 
the presence of the haughty queen with a heart 
full of disappointment and chagrin. Her Royal 
Highness found herself surrounded by persons on 
whose confidence she could not depend ; because 
every one appeared in awe of the queen. She 


was also neglected and insulted by the prince, 
who ought to have been the first to protect her ; 
but the smile of her infant still cheered her gloomy 

This was the most disastrous period of the war : 
the Bank of England stopped payment ; mutinies 
broke out in the army and navy, which were at- 
tended by much bloodshed; Ireland was on the 
verge of rebellion ; and the sum required for 
the year's service amounted to the abominable 
and increased sum of forty-two millions of money, 
of which thirty-four millions were raised by loans, 
and three millions by Exchequer Bills. The 
premier also proposed to extort seven millions 
from the people by a new impost, under the 
name of "the triple assessment." 

The year 1798 presented a continuation of 
grievances amongst most classes in humble life. 
Revelry and uproarious riot, however, were ever 
to be found in the residences of the royal, yet 
unnatural, husband of the Princess of Wales; 
and each succeeding year seemed but to improve 
him in all sorts of infamous engagements. He 
had ^at his command some of the most desperate 
and inhuman characters by which society was ever 
debased. One in particular, M'Mahon, who would 
at any time seduce a female from her home, under 
some specious pretence, in order to take her as a 
prize to his master, whose favour thereby might 
be secured. 


The intrigues of the Duke of York were also 
of a most abandoned character; and the other 
brothers merit some notice in the "Annals of 
Infamy." During Frederick's residence in Ger- 
many, he contracted habits and indulged in ex- 
cesses abhorrent to human nature, and we should 
be spared much deep humiliation, as Englishmen, 
if we had not occasion to recur again to these 
sickening facts; but the recording angel of truth 
forbids our silence, and we must not, therefore, 
disobey her mandate. 

The year 1799 will be remembered, and refer- 
ence made to it, as long as humanity can reflect 
upon the desolations and calamities occasioned by 
war. The earth, in many quarters, was covered 
with "killed and wounded," while the money of 
the tax-payers paid the legal assassins. 

In the meantime the minister at home was rack- 
ing his brains how new taxes might be levied to 
supply the means for the continuation of carnage. 
Property, liberty, — nay, even life itself, were 
deemed toys in the hands of Mr. Pitt, whose pas- 
sions seemed to centre in rapine, enmity, and am- 
bition. His heart was steeled against the cry of 
the widow and the plaintive sigh of the destitute 
orphan. The queen's account in the day of retri- 
bution must also be rather enormous, for the min- 
ister acted in concert with her in this complicated 
trickery. Mr. Pitt and the queen seemed to think 
their only part consisted in draining the resources 


of the people to their last ability, and in refusing 
all overtures of peace, whatever offers might be 

This year France made proposals of peace with 
these kingdoms, which were refused, and war, deso- 
lating war, with all its attendant and consequent 
horrors, still reared its " gory banners " over the 
principal part of the world. 

We will leave the contemplation of this heart- 
rending subject and turn to another, scarcely less 
revolting to humanity, — the conduct of the Prince 
of Wales, whose court was generally filled with a 
host of harlots. His Royal Highness was anxious 
to get rid of the princess (his wife) entirely, and 
most heartily did the queen concur in his wishes. 
The difficult part of the task was the considera- 
tion and organisation of those measures most likely 
to promote the desired end. The Princess of 
Wales's letters, addressed to her family in Bnms- 
wick, had many times been opened, and, not 
unfrequently, even suppressed. So that her 
persecutions were now commenced. 

The princess was too open and ingenuous in 
character to obtain the queen's approbation, and, 
therefore, after the several repulses which she had 
received from her Majesty, Caroline was justly 
incensed at her uncalled-for, unprovoked haughti- 
ness and overbearing manners. The unsuspecting 
nature of the Princess of Wales, however, pre- 
vented her from being aware of the infamous 


snares laid for her destruction at this period. 
Her Royal Highness has many times been heard 
to say, " Had I been suspicious, pray what should 
I not have feared? The queen, from the first 
time I saw her, frowned upon me, and very little 
I said or did pleased her ; so I never thought I 
was an object of any consequence to her Maj- 
esty." These were the reasonings of native, un- 
sophisticated feelings, and well would it have been 
for the queen if her heart had been equally open, 
and her language equally candid. 

The year 1 800 was a continuation of dissension 
and discord, both at home and abroad. Twice in 
this year the king's life was attempted, once 
in Hyde Park, and again, on the same evening, 
at Drury Lane Theatre, the first being by a ball 
cartridge and the latter by a pistol. In the court 
the same lavish display as formerly was continued, 
and the royal means were not curtailed. It was 
said that the king declined having more than one 
course served up, but this was merely nominal ; 
indeed, if it were as stated, the country did not 
benefit much by the change, as the allowances to 
royalty were, in many instances, very much in- 
creased instead of being decreased. 

Such was the scarcity of provisions this year, 
that the generality of the population existed upon 
a scanty portion of potatoes during the twenty-four 
hours. Bread was not within the power of the 
poor to obtain, as the quartern loaf, mixed with all 


sorts of deleterious ingredients, sold for twenty-one 

This year was rendered of immortal memory 
by the union of Ireland with England, which was 
effected by a profuse distribution of money and 
titles. Oh, disgrace to the Irish nation, ye servile 
few, who could sell your country for selfish ends ! 
To yield up " name and fame " and all that is dear 
to honesty for the sake of an " empty sound ! " 

The amounts required for this and the last year 
were nearly the same as for 1798. 

In the early part of the year 1801 it was an- 
nounced that the king had taken a severe cold 
while hunting, and, in consequence, was not able 
to visit the several concerts to which he had previ- 
ously given the promise of his attendance and pat- 
ronage, but his indisposition was mental, not bodily. 
His Majesty was so exceedingly distressed at the 
base and unworthy conduct of his son to his niece, 
the Princess of Wales, that he said, frequently, " It 
is more than a father can bear ! " Many times 
would he order his horse to be brought, and, re- 
questing his attendants not to follow him, pursue 
his way toward Blackheath, where the princess then 
resided, sympathising with her sorrows, and, more 
especially, in the intended removal of her child; 
for even at this early period, when the Princess 
Charlotte was but four years of age, the queen 
would signify her commands that the child should 
pass some days with her, either in London or 


Windsor, whichever happened to be most conve- 
nient to her Majesty. 

Notwithstanding the extreme scarcity of money 
and the high price of food, the queen and the 
younger branches of her family continued to give 
their splendid entertainments, as expense was the 
last consideration with the royal brood when it was 
known the country supplied the means. Oh, John 
Bull, thy gullibility has, for above half a century, 
been more than proverbial ! 

On the 29th of October the king opened the 
House in person, and announced the conclusion 
of war. Parliament then adjourned till after the 
Christmas recess. England now exhibited the 
effects of an eight years' war; the national debt 
had been doubled, and internal distress had be- 
come general ; the poor were in a state bordering 
on starvation, and commerce had the prospect of 
every foreign port being shut against it ; while the 
supplies required for the year amounted to nearly 
forty millions. 

The year 1802 was ushered in under the great- 
est embarrassments. The vitals of the people were 
nearly destroyed by the enormous taxation they 
had endured for so many years, and it was doubt- 
less owing to the intolerable load they had sustained, 
and still expected to have forced upon them, that 
independent sentiments were proclaimed. They 
had a right to condemn the usurping power of the 
queen for producing all their troubles. 


The recess having terminated, the House met. 
The chancellor came forward to show that the 
sovereign's pecmiiary affairs were very much in 
arrear. After introducing his plan of finance, he 
was obliged to inform the House that certain taxes 
had been mortgaged by Mr. Pitt (who had now 
resigned), for which the present minister must 
provide. To defray this expense, very heavy addi- 
tional duties were imposed on beer, malt, hops, 
etc. A considerable addition was also made to 
the assessed taxes, and upon imports and exports. 
At this period the whole of the "funded debt," 
including the loans of the present year, amounted 
to five hundred and forty millions, and the interest 
was annually seventeen millions sterling. 

On the 7th of May Mr. Nichol moved that an 
address be presented to his Majesty, thanking him 
for the removal of Mr. Pitt from his councils, when 
Lord Belgrave rose, and moved an amendment, 
expressive of the high approbation of that House 
respecting the character and conduct of the late 
minister and his colleagues. In the face of all 
opposition. Lord Belgrave's amendment was car- 
ried by more than four to one, as also a second 
motion, by Sir H. Mildmay, "that the thanks of 
the House be given to the Right Hon. Mr. Pitt." 
This was assurance in perfection. These discus- 
sions only seemed to increase Mr. Pitt's popular- 
ity, and on the occasion of his next birthday. Earl 
Spencer, late first lord of the admiralty, gave as 


a toast to the company, " the pilot that weathered 
the storm," instead of " the pilot who gathered the 
storm ! " 

In the latter part of this year much fear was 
excited lest hostilities should again arise between 
France and England, on account of the ascendency 
of Buonaparte. 

At the commencement of the year 1803, the 
unhappy king, by the desire of his overbearing 
wife, directed a message to the House, recom- 
mending " the embarrassed state of the Prince of 
Wales to their attention," and, in consequence, 
sixty thousand pounds annually were further set- 
tled upon his Royal Highness, to continue for 
three years and a half. This sum, however, was 
not half sufficient to meet his lavish engagements ; 
and therefore Mr. Calcraft had the hardihood to 
move that " means be granted to enable the prince 
to resume his state and dignity." But this incon- 
sistent and insulting motion was "too bad," and, 
in defiance of even the boroughmongers, was 

The supplies voted for the public service this 
year amounted to above fifty-six millions. We 
really wonder of what materials Englishmen were 
composed to allow such iniquitous grants. 

Ministers again declared war with France, and 
men and money were in no inconsiderable request. 
The French Consul possessed himself of Hanover, 
and threatened an invasion of England, which 


frightened ministers to put the country in a state 
of defence. But was not this a political ruse ? 

Mr. Addington was not so popular as his prede- 
cessor in the capacity of minister ; he had not so 
much hardihood as Mr. Pitt, and was not calculated 
to endure the load of obloquy which he received, 
as he considered himself free from the charge of 
having destroyed the prospects of his country 
by the immense debt then contracted; for that 
was the arrangement of Mr. Pitt. Mr. Addington 
was merely a tool in the hands of others. 

Those who knew the intricate and perplexed 
state of affairs within the court were only able 
to judge how long Mr. Addington's ministry would 
continue, and, also, why it was brought into action. 
Alas! not merely or intentionally to satisfy the 
liberal politicians, or to change any part of the 
long misrule of the former minister. Widely op- 
posite were the motives which proved the main- 
spring to the meditated result. The queen again 
intended to press the king for an increase of 
income, to a serious amount, for her favourite 
spendthrift, and she asked the minister how it 
might be best attained. The plan was therefore 
concerted, and as Pitt dared not so soon again 
ask for further advances, a new minister might 
be induced to do it, if shielded by the royal 

If such conduct were not juggling, and acting 
with the most abominable treachery and hypocrisy. 

- .T^- As 

.- . 'ir^dig> 
' ■ *-j: way 
> .-L.^i was 
-. *e ^A-iU be 

^. ' ::-i: para- 

- >.*^ -.vho was 
. is.z::r^ for 
•,<:r les, 

•':fr:rr..>? is, you 
itv: r.'umes; we 

-.•^ixrirfon of the 
^ V .'" --.^i^N of Wales 
>. . •. ..-c h:5 nndictive 
. .- :v >ome confiden- 
v :." his Majesty. 
\. i::crs then placed 
• :;-o queen eveiy- 
\:- "i::h his daug-hter- 
^ . -.>;.-': a: rhe imprudence 
.!: ;.".:> rime the Prince 
\:k'V >.:s father was im- 
^. -re ,uj>o of the princess, 

...v. ii ^-irrous situations, to 
>^:n .v rnncess received and 
..;„^ :v r'otters' most ardent 
.-.^iiiivv. -wd they could not fix 


upon any action, which they were able to prove, 
to affect her honour or virtue. In the meantime, 
Caroline's only child was removed from her, with- 
out the enjoyment of whose endearing society life 
was a mere blank. 

In proportion as the prince was applauded, and 
the queen supported him, so was the princess 
abused and insulted. With respect to pecuniary 
affairs, every honest and upright person saw the 
strange disproportion in the incomes of the sev- 
eral members of the family ; for the princess, who 
had to keep an entirely distinct and separate estab- 
lishment at her sole expense, was allowed no more 
than twenty-two thousand pounds per annum, 
while the other members, who were chiefly expen- 
sive to the king, had their salaries granted without 
reference to this subject. Yet it was expected 
that the etiquette of rank should be maintained, 
and with an equal ostentatious display, as if means 
were proportionately provided to defray such ex- 
penses. Although living upon the establishment 
of the king, the queen's real independent income 
was fifty-eight thousand pounds a year. Ought 
we not to ask why the princess was thus neglected 
and shamefully insulted } — left in debt, and in 
extreme perplexity of circumstances, for which 
the family must ever be considered mean and un- 
just } How was her Royal Highness to act in such 
a trying case } If she had retired to private life, 
her enemies would have pronounced her an im- 



proper person to retain the high station which she 
had formerly occupied. If appearances were to 
be maintained, and royal splendour continued, she 
must mix with certain society, and debt be the 
inevitable consequence. The princess felt there 
were points, beyond which a virtuous, insulted 
female could not show forbearance; and she, 
therefore, resolved no longer to endure the galling 
yoke of oppression, without further explanation. 


The King Indisposed — Pitt Assumes the Government Reins 
— Buonaparte's Invasion — Deathof Mr. Pitt — His Charac- 
ter — Charles James Fox — Plots against the Princess — 
Duke of Brunswick — Ministerial Charges — A Duchess 
Visits England — Etiquette — The Pension List — Oppres- 
sion of the Masses — Speculations in Stocks — Doctor Ran- 
dolph's Disclosures — Hush Money. 

|E now proceed to the year 1804, which 
commenced amidst such political dissen- 
sion at home, and preparations for in- 
creasing desolation abroad. 

His Majesty's health now became very indiffer- 
ent, and, in February, an official bulletin announced 
his malady. It was reported to be a very slight 
attack ; though we are sorry to say it was, to the 
king, productive of great pain and agitation of 
mind by the misrule of the queen, and the impro- 
prieties of his family. Little did the nation at 
large imagine that the family of the sovereign (to 
whose individual income they had so promptly and 
munificently contributed) were the causes of his 
acute anxieties. His sons were deeply embarrassed 
by play, their female connections chiefly of the 
most abandoned character, and their engagements 

in the world, generally speaking, far beyond their 



powers to discharge. His daughters were also 
composed of the frailties of human nature. Bom 
and educated in a court, imder the severe tuition 
of their mother, they believed themselves of supe- 
rior worth. The pleasures and enjoyments of life 
were ever waiting for their acquiescence, and their 
exercise on horseback, attended by certain persons, 
occupying certain stations in life, afforded them a 
variety of opportunities for conversation, in which 
the softest subjects met the ear. 

At this period, also, the king's already distracted 
mind was further embittered by what he considered 
the loss of virtue in one of his daughters ; and the 
agony he endured, lest the circumstance should 
transpire to the public, would defy any language 
to depict. 

After calmness, in some measure, was restored 
to his Majesty's wounded feelings, his health grad- 
ually improved, and, on the 29th of March, he was 
declared to be convalescent. 

On the resignation of Mr. Addington, Mr. Pitt 
again assumed the reins of government, and ap- 
pointed his proUgS^ Mr. Canning, treasurer of the 
navy. Why do not the many biographers of this 
political character explain the reason, if everything 
were fair and straightforward, of his quitting office 
in 1 80 1, because the Catholic question was for- 
bidden to be mentioned, and returning to it in 
1804, under an express stipulation that no member 
of the government should agitate it contrary to 


the royal inclination ? Was the promise that had 
been given only binding for three years ? Was Mr. 
Canning's secession from office a trick ? Was his 
return to it a sacrifice, — a sacrifice of honour and 
principle, — to the miserable gratification of obtain- 
ing power ? Alas ! the public had little to thank 
Mr. Canning for ; but they knew not, at that time, 
his love of place and pension. 

In October it was said the king and prince were 
reconciled ; but the substance of that reconcilia- 
tion was not made known to the nation. The 
queen had resolved to oblige her favourite son and 
promote his wishes, by finally relieving him from 
any further engagements with the princess, his 
wife; though of the various abominable schemes 
then in action, the king was kept entirely ignorant. 

In this year the health of Mr. Pitt began to 
fail ; his ardour seemed cooled, and he experienced 
short intervals of extreme debility and pain. 

In the year 1805 certain existing evils ren- 
dered it needful and expedient, in the opinion 
of the ministry, that the English nation should 
fear an invasion from Buonaparte. We will say 
why they deemed it necessary. Because the bur- 
dens of the poor were already immense, and it was 
requisite to give an excuse for stripping thousands 
of families of their scanty apparel, their few mean 
and simple articles of furniture, and their humble 
home, for the purpose of enabling the "hydra- 
headed monster" of corruption to pursue his un- 


limited course over this insulted nation. And 
what could be better to efifect this object than 
alarming the country with the fear of an invasion ? 
The diabolical scheme too fatally succeeded. 

In order to strengthen the power of the queen 
at this period, Mr. Pitt renewed his connection with 
Mr. Addington, who was raised to the peerage by 
the title of Viscount Sidmouth, and succeeded 
the Duke of Portland as president of the council. 

The minister, Mr. Pitt, cool as he was on many 
iniquitous subjects, could not avoid feeling pangs 
of remorse at the continual impositions he was 
compelled by the queen to make (in various shapes) 
upon the people. His unbending pride, however, 
would not permit him to name his uneasiness to 
her Majesty, as he well knew her inflexible temper 
and disposition would not permit her to receive 
any opinion in preference to her own. He soon 
resigned his earthly vexation upon this point, as he 
became so indisposed as not to be able to attend 
his political affairs, and was obliged to seek for 
repose in retirement from active life. 

At the commencement of the year 1 806, Parlia- 
ment was opened by commission ; but the usual 
address was omitted, on account of the absence of 
the minister, who, as before stated, was then seri- 
ously indisposed. 

On the 23d of January Mr. Pitt expired, in the 
forty-seventh year of his age. He was said to have 
died insolvent. Be this as it may, forty thousand 


miliam Pitt 

Photo-etchint: from the puintinji by Gainshoroii'-h 



pounds were voted as a plea to discharge his debts, 
as well as means to defray the expenses of his 
funeral. Probably this was the best laid-out money 
of the ministry for some time past. If the occasion 
had occurred twenty years before, what an immense 
saving it had produced the country. 

The public life of Mr. Pitt will afford no room 
for praise to the faithful and just historian. When 
the errors and praises of his biographers shall have 
lost their force, future generations will behold his 
character in its native colours. He must then 
appear either in the light of an ungrateful hypo- 
crite, or submit to the only alternative of being 
reckoned a man of contracted mind. Even in 
private life, he was not more amiable nor exem- 
plary. The ministerial system which he had laid 
down pervaded the internal economy of all his 
actions. He appeared to imagine true dignity 
consisted in a coolness and reserve (probably ac- 
quired from his queen) that banished every suitor 
from his presence ; nor did he ever sufiFer a case of 
distress, however just or pressing the claims might 
be, to divert him from the routine of office, or to 
extort the least relief or comfort from himself. 
Negligent and careless in his domestic concerns, he 
never permitted a single ray of generosity to burst 
forth to animate the general frost of his character. 
He retained his natural suUenness and reserve; 
even in the best moments of convivial mirth he 
never displayed a flexibility of disposition or an 


openness to conviction. Often as he was obliged 
to submit to the decrees of necessity, whereon he 
imagined his continuance in office depended, yet he 
never had the candour to acknowledge the weakness 
of any measure, originating in himself, that brought 
on that necessity. But what a departure was this 
from the principles of his illustrious ancestor, the 
Earl of Chatham, who would never crouch to the 
authority of any sovereign or cabinet, when mili- 
tating against his own more enlightened judgment. 
He resisted bribery, and generally succeeded in his 
views, or, if baffled, resigned his office. The son 
of this nobleman, however, pursued far different 
maxims, and pertinaciously clung to the douceurs 
and infamy of office; for infamous it most cer- 
tainly was, to practise measures his own sentiments 
condemned Never did man accede to power on 
more just or noble principles, and never did man 
forsake those principles with less reserve. He 
forgot all obligations, and at a happy crisis, when 
he might have availed himself of the occasion of 
honourably fulfilling them, in advancing the liberty 
and happiness of the coimtry, he was eternally 
launching out into vapid and unmeaning encomiums 
on the boasted excellencies of the British constitu- 
tion, instead of adhering to his solemn contract, of 
exerting all his influence and abilities to reform its 
blemishes. With all the failings of this minister, 
his caution and plausibility were admirably calcu- 
lated to entrap the confidence of the landed and 


monied interest, and he turned it to the best 
account, labouring with all his zeal to inculcate 
a belief of the flourishing state of the national 
finances, enforcing every circumstance tending to 
confirm this belief, and concealing every truth that 
would serve to diminish or destroy it. Will not 
such a man, then, be regarded by posterity as a 
time-server and an apostate ? 

After the death of Mr. Pitt, Mr. Fox joined the 
ministry, and, at the same time. Lord Sidmouth 
continued a member of the Cabinet. But Mr. Fox 
did not retain his situation long. His health soon 
after declined, and he died on the 13th of Sep- 
tember following. 

Of this great statesman, we may say, " Take him 
for all in all, we ne*er shall look upon his like again." 
He was an unbending patriot ; possessed of great 
political ability, and loved, as well as advocated, the 
cause of liberty. Light and shade, however, were 
mixed in Mr. Fox's picture. He permitted private 
friendship, in one instance, to overbalance his pub- 
lic duty. We refer to the language used by him in 
the House of Commons, in April, 1787, which must 
have been against his conscience. He there denied 
the marriage between the Prince of Wales and Mrs. 
Fitzherbert, when, in fact, he assisted at that very 
marriage ; but, because he had engaged secrecy to 
the prince, he thought proper to utter a direct 
falsehood rather than break his promise upon the 


Mr. Pitt's death was an unpleasant consequence 
to the usurping queen, and perhaps impelled the 
ardour of her determination to get her favourite 
son's divorce from his injured wife settled as soon 
as possible. The scheme for this purpose, which 
seemed most practicable, was the obtaining some 
document as evidence against the moral character 
of the princess. By the queen's express desire, 
therefore, Lady Douglas had removed her abode, 
nearly six years previously, close to Blackheath, 
and was purposely employed to invent some dis- 
honourable report against the princess. 

The Princess of Wales, accidentally and inno- 
cently (on her part), became acquainted with this 
lady, and from that period no pains were spared, 
on the part of Lady Douglas and her husband, 
to increase that acquaintance, until their diabolical 
object should be attained. The most assiduous 
attentions and extravagant pains were used to 
entrap the generous mind of the princess ; but 
as the object in view proved of a very difficult 
nature, so did the means for its accomplishment 
become equally numerous. This intimacy com- 
menced in 1 80 1, and terminated in 1804; and 
during that period did these base designing slan- 
derers and ungrateful guests, by secret application, 
obtain an opportunity to vilify, outrage, and insult 
the princess, in connection with nearly every branch 
of the royal family, who were too closely united in 
one general interest not to assist each other. 


The only patriotic members, the Dukes of Kent 
and Sussex, appeared much wrought upon by the 
speciops and abominable fabrication brought for- 
ward by these unprincipled, time-serving, and 
heartless enemies of Caroline. Although their 
statements and depositions were taken so fully, 
and examined so closely, — although the prince 
pursued the subject with such unfeeling barbarity, 
— yet the princess was acquitted, most honourably 
acquitted. Indeed, to any rational inquirer, the 
wickedness of the Douglas statement was, beyond 
doubt, most palpable. It was full of improbabili- 
ties, of contradictions, and absurdities, which well 
merited punishment. Had a similar insult or a 
flagrant transgression been offered to the roj'al 
family in the person of any other than the Princess 
of Wales, would not the whole royal phalanx, 
headed by the queen, have arisen in defence of 
their illustrious and virtuous house ? Nay, would 
not the insulting falsehoods and infamous asser- 
tions have been proved treasonable.^ Yes, un- 
doubtedly; but, because the injured Princess of 
Wales was the intended victim of a conspiracy, 
although so gloriously acquitted, yet no prosecu- 
tion of her traducers followed ; neither did any 
branch of the royal family exemplify one pleas- 
urable feeling upon the conclusion of this disgrace- 
fully iniquitous business. Their chagrin was much 
more evident. 

As if in this year a deluge of sadness and 


sorrow, in addition to all other trials and injuries, 
were to fall upon the persecuted Caroline, she had 
to suflfer the heavy and irreparable loss of her 
father, William, Duke of Brunswick, at the mem- 
orable battle of Jena, October 14th, in the seventy- 
first year of his age. 

The character of the venerable Duke of Bruns- 
wick is beyond praise ; " his name shall be his 
monument ! " If at any period the Princess of 
Wales needed the kind and soothing balm of 
friendship, it was at this trying juncture. Her 
friends were few in number, and their friendship 
was of an evanescent description. They some- 
times professed their readiness to serve her, and 
eulogised her greatness of mind and talent ; yet, 
when brought to the point by public opinion and 
inquiry, they very generally expressed their senti- 
ments equivocally, or with some portion of hesita- 
tion calculated to injure, rather than benefit, the 
cause they professed to serve. Mr. Canning and 
Mr. Whitbread were two of these particular kind of 
friends, as our after history will abundantly testify. 

How wretched must have been the Princess 
Charlotte at this period, who was nearly deprived 
of all communication with her affectionate mother, 
and without one friend to whom she could freely 
speak of her sorrows and anxious wishes ! 

The year 1807 commenced with selfish men 
in office, who contrived selfish measures for the 
continued purposes of corruption. 


The king now became very imbecile; and the 
queen and the Prince of Wales intimidated him 
from acting honourably toward the Princess of 
Wales, as he had so committed himself by his fatal 
act of bigamy. As his mind became proportion- 
ately depressed by the perplexities of his situatioi^ 
so did his conduct become more influenced as they 
desired it ; until, at length, he proved a mere 
automaton, to be moved at their pleasure. 

In any case of vital importance to character, 
delay is dangerous ; because it causes suspicion, 
suspicion begets mistrust, and so on do these 
injurious sentiments proceed, until, ere the time of 
trial arrives, the injured party has suffered unjustly 
in a twofold way. Thus it was in the case of the 
unfortunate Caroline. To oblige the queen, his 
Majesty postponed seeing his daughter-in-law as 
long as it suited the views of the designers against 
her happiness. 

From the active part which Mr. Perceval had 
taken in defence of the princess, especially in his 
book, which made much noise in the world at this 
time, the queen thought it prudent to advise his 
being accommodated with office. She made her 
will known to the prince, who was very happy to 
concur in the suggestion, but only feared an obsta- 
cle in Mr. Perceval's rigid virtue. This, however, 
was not insurmountable, and Mr. Perceval was 
made " Chancellor of the Exchequer ; ** Mr. Can- 
ning, " Secretary for Foreign Affairs ; " and Lord 



•Castlereagh, "Secretary for the Department of 
War and the Colonies." Thus were two of the 
former advocates of the Princess of Wales enlisted 
under the banners of her most deadly enemies. 
As to the honour they derived from their base 
desertion of the cause of innocence, we leave our 
readers to judge. 

The Prince of Wales, at this juncture, made no 
secret of his diabolical intentions ; for we well know 
that he has frequently raised the goblet to his lips, 
and drank " to the speedy damnation of the prin- 
cess." It was very perceptible that the royal party 
were well aware of the injustice practised toward 
the princess ; but, charity being a virtue of little 
worth in their ideas, they resolved to carry their 
plans into execution, no matter at what cost. 

The least the late friends of the princess could 
do was to remain silent ; but human beings can 
articulate sounds, and be oppositely communicative 
with their optical faculties. An individual, who 
accepts place amongst those whom he formerly 
professed to despise, renders himself an object of 
suspicion, if not of detestation. 

For the present, we abstain from further remarks 
upon these two late principal friends of the perse- 
cuted Princess of Wales. 

Upon hearing of the Duke of Brunswick's death, 
the king could do no less than solicit the duchess, 
his sister, to visit England. As the country around 
her was in a deplorable state, and feeling desirous 


to see her daughter, she determined to accept the 
invitation, and arrived at the house of the Princess 
of Wales, at Blackheath, on the 7th of July, in- 
one of her Royal Highnesses carriages. 

The injured Caroline was so overpowered at this 
interview as to cause the duchess much serious dis- 
quiet ; for she plainly saw that her daughter had 
great cause for sorrow, the particulars of which she 
was yet ignorant. The princess afterward appeared 
soothed ; and this short interview, cheered by a. 
fond mother's presence, proved a solace to her 
lacerated heart. 

The king went from Windsor to see his sister,, 
and the queen also from St. James's Palace ; the 
Princess Charlotte, and several • other members of 
the family, paid their respects to the duchess. 

Thus, though common or decent attention was- 
refused the daughter, while mourning over her 
early misfortunes and recent losses, yet, when her 
mother arrived some little regard must be paidi 
to etiquette, although the daughter was to receive 
the visitors. But so it was. Poor Queen Char- 
lotte, how hard it was for her to vouchsafe or con- 
descend to let fall one smile upon Caroline! 

After the opportunity this visit afforded the Prin- 
cess Charlotte, the mother and daughter were of 
necessity explicit, and they mourned over the seem- 
ing hard destiny each was doomed to experience. 

During the remainder of this year, the king be- 
came more and more incapacitated for business 


of any sort ; he could not even distinguish any 
object by either its colour or size, and was led from 
one place to another as if in the last stage of blind- 
ness. The long-continued distractions of his mind, 
and the anxiety yet remaining, caused his rational 
moments to be most gloomy. His favourite daugh- 
ter was incurably diseased with a scrofulous disorder, 
from which she suffered dreadfully, and nature 
seemed fast declining. Throughout the whole of 
his family, the poor monarch had but little gratifi- 
cation, as every individual composing it was separ- 
ately imder her Majesty's control. To have 
contradicted her order or command would have 
been attended with no very pleasant consequences. 
Her look was sufficient to frighten every one into 

We now enter upon the year 1 808, in which the 
session of Parliament was opened by commission, 
on the 2 1 St of January, the king's indisposition 
preventing him from going in person. 

At this period a very strong sensation was ex- 
cited against the continuance of the pension list. 
The productive classes ascertained, in a very cor- 
rect way, how the fruits of their industry were 
devoured. In consequence of which, they felt 
themselves imposed upon in the highest degree; 
but resolved to try rational entreaty and petition 
ere they resorted to acts of violence. The number 
of these dissatisfied classes, in every large town, was 
immensely great, and they only needed system to 


obtain, by their simple petition, what they so much 
desired ; but the authorities knew the incapacitated 
state of the sufferers, in the absence of that system, 
and therefore very ungenerously refused their 

In March the city of London (John Ansley, 
mayor) petitioned both Houses for parliamentary 
reform, and the abolition of sinecure places and 
pensions ; but they received the expense attendant 
upon their exertions for their reward, and the mor- 
tification of the minister's apathy for their satisfac- 
tion. Popular indignation, however, is not so easily 
allayed ; for, though extreme appearances may for 
a time be concealed, they will eventually break forth 
with tenfold force. The public reasoned upon a 
rational ground, and was fully aware that their 
strength was spent to support enemies. Their re- 
solve to petition for freedom was the dictate of an 
unerring and fixed principle, ever inherent in the 
breast of man. The blandishments of folly, and 
the encouragement given to imposition, have ren- 
dered the industrious and honest citizen a prey to 
the lordlings of arbitrary power ; and so long as he 
can assist to supply means whereby their cravings 
may be satisfied, so long do they seem to suppose 
he lives to a sufficient purpose. Under these cir- 
cumstances, the oppressed classes were perfectly 
justified in making a stand against further innova- 
tion, and also in resisting the intolerable injustice 
in force against them. Still the administration 


continued inexorable to the pressing prayers and 
miserable condition of the people. The political 
disease, however, was rapidly advancing to a crisis. 

Similar distress and dissatisfaction existed at the 
commencement of the year 1809. Provisions were 
dear, and labour scarce ; yet an additional sum was 
required for the state, to uphold its secret machi- 
nations, and pervert the ends of justice. 

It will be remembered that, in this year, the 
celebrated Mrs. Mary Ann Clark, formerly a mis- 
tress of the Duke of York, appeared at the bar 
of the House of Commons, as evidence against 
him. Mr. Wardle, with an intrepidity worthy of 
the cause in which he was engaged, took upon 
himself the awful responsibility of preferring those 
serious charges against the duke, which it were 
unnecessary for us here to repeat. The public 
officers of the king volunteered their services to 
rescue his Royal Highness from public odium by 
denominating the proceeding as a conspiracy. la 
spite, however, of every artifice which a knowledge 
of the law enables bad men to practise to defeat 
the ends of justice, there were exposed to public 
view scenes of the grossest corruption, of the most 
abandoned profligacy, of the most degrading mean-^ 
ness, and of the most consummate hypocrisy. IThe 
contagion had reached every department of the 
state ; nor was the Church exempted from its bane- 
ful influence. It was fully proved that not only 
subordinate situations, but even deaneries and bish- 


oprics (which had been supposed to be the rewards 
of piety and learning), were applied for to his Royal 
Highness, through the intervention of his mistress. 
A great majority of the boroughmongers, of course, 
acquitted the duke from these charges, and talked 
of voting an address of thanks to him for the 
manner in which he discharged his official duties. 
Fortunately, however, the mode of investigation 
adopted enabled every man in the kingdom to 
judge for himself. Englishmen, for once, spoke 
out, and the duke was compelled to resign. This 
step on the part of the illustrious debauchee pre- 
vented further exposure, and saved him from the 
severe and heavy weight of being voted out of 
office, and degraded. Behold, then, reader, what 
the principles of Pitt achieved! That minister 
always persuaded the male branches of the family 
that the queen's protection (through the medium 
of the minister) would prove at all times a suffi- 
cient retreat and asylum, in case of complaint or 
refractory sensation of the people at their frequent 
derelictions from duty and honour. 

The fluctuation of the public funds was an 
opportime chance for speculation, and the queen's 
love of money induced her to turn her sources 
of information to the best account; she therefore 
acted in concert with her broker, and immediately, 
upon any rise taking place, she "sold out," and 
when gloom overspread the market, she "bought 
in." By this speculation alone, the Duke of Kent 


acknowledged that his mother realised four hun- 
dred thousand pounds. At the same period, her 
Majesty had another excellent speculation in hand ; 
namely, the profits arising from the sale of cadet- 
ships for the East Indies. Doctor Randolph and 
Lady Jersey were the chief managers of these 
affairs, though her Majesty received the largest 
portion of the spoil. Doctor Randolph himself 
acknowledged that the queen had realised seventy 
thousand pounds upon this traffic alone. In one 
transaction with a candidate for a cadetship, an 
enormous premium was required, and the applicant 
was very much incensed, as it appeared to him 
to be nothing less than a bold imposition. He ex- 
postulated ; but Doctor Randolph made short of the 
affair by refusing any further commimication upon 
the subject. For once. Doctor Randolph forgot 
his own interest, as also the public character and 
safety of his royal mistress. The gentleman, 
shortly afterward, was visiting a friend in Paris, 
when the conversation turned upon the English 
constitution, and the immense revenues of the 
kingdom. The friend spoke in raptures upon the 
liberal feelings and generous provisions exercised 
and provided toward, and for all, aspirants to 
honour. At length, the visitor could no longer 
conceal his mortification and chagrin, and he can- 
didly explained every particular of his correspond- 
ence with Doctor Randolph, in which her Majesty's 
name was as freely introduced as the doctor's. 


The astonishment and surprise of his friend were 
great indeed, and he recommended him to publish 
the whole affair in France, and circulate it through 
the surrounding kingdoms. A printer was sought 
for, who required a certain time to determine the 
risk he should run in the undertaking ; this was ac- 
cordingly granted, and the parties separated. As 
soon as the person intended to be employed found 
the consequence attached to it, he communicated 
the important information to a solicitor, of some 
eminence, in London, to whom he had formerly 
been known. The affair was subsequently made 
known to the queen's youngest son, and by him 
the queen was fully acquainted with the proba- 
bility of public exposure. An overwhelming infamy 
she well knew would be inseparably attached to it. 
Her Majesty had been accustomed to deception, 
but hitherto she had not feared detection ; but the 
moment of her fancied security was the moment 
most likely to prove fatal to her existence as a 

The Duke of Kent was unremitting in his exer- 
tions to obtain a settlement of this nefarious affair, 
and twenty thousand pounds were actually paid for 
the correspondence, and two thousand pounds given 
by the queen (through the medium of the duke) to 
the person who effected the settlement of the 
business, under the provision "that that business 
might never transpire to the public." His Royal 
Highness was too well aware of the general disposi- 


tion of the queen, and her avaricious character, not 
to affect satisfaction at the high price her Majesty 
paid for silencing this unpleasant affair. It may 
be inferred that, if the queen had committed herself 
by such flagrant acts of injustice as these, there 
might be many more dishonourable transactions of 
a minor description, occurring nearly at the same 
period. Yes, the inference is correct, for her Maj- 
esty was^truly bom and bred a German. 


Queen Charlotte's Ungenerosity— A Royal Creditor — His 
Family Left Beggars — A Duel — Division in the Royal 
Family — Scandalum Magnatum — Abuse of a Murdered 
Man — An Affidavit — An Assassin Not Recognised — A 
Witness Testifies — People Who See in the Dark — Tell- 
tale Slippers — A Great Villain — Questionable Evidence — 
A Man His Own Murderer — The Supposed Murderer in 
High Favour— *« Good God! Mr. Sellis Has Cut His 
Throat I " 

jE will relate another instance of Queen 
Charlotte's ungenerous conduct. She 
had the superintendence of the educa- 
tion of her daughters, as far as related to the 
choice of their preceptors. Her Majesty ap- 
pointed a very clever and scientific gentleman, 
who resided in London, to teach herself and the 
six princesses — geography, astronomy, arithme- 
tic, and the nature of the funds. Besides which, 
he was asked, as a favour, to settle the very 
deranged accounts of the princesses. This ac- 
complished and worthy gentleman also held of 
Princess Elizabeth a bond for ten thousand 
pounds. After dancing attendance upon these 
illustrious individuals for twenty-six years, with- 
out receiving any remuneration, though he had 



frequently pressed for payment of his longstand- 
ing account, he again solicited a settlement with 
the queen; but, as he only received abuse of an 
unmeasured description for his pains, he deter- 
mined to maintain himself and his large family 
out of the profits of his private scholars, leaving 
the royal debt as a provision for his children 
after him. His expenses were considerable in 
attending the royal family, as he was always 
obliged to go full dressed in a bag and silk stock- 
ings, to hire carriages to go down to Windsor, to 
live at an inn, and to sleep there, if they chose 
to take lessons the two following days, by which 
he was also often obliged to neglect and disoblige 
his private scholars. For all this attendance, he 
received no remuneration whatever ; and Queen 
Charlotte had the heart to say, " I think you have 
had remuneration sufficient by your youngest son 
receiving a pension of eighty pounds a year for 
teaching the younger princesses only writing." 
The preceptor, however, still claimed his remunera- 
tion, and was, at last, referred to the lawyers, who 
required him to produce proofs of every lesson he 
gave, the day and the hour, for twenty-six years. 
To their astonishment, he produced his diary, and 
such clear accounts, that there was no contradict- 
ing them. But as lawyers are never at a loss how 
to gain their ends, they next required him to de- 
clare, upon oath, the name of each particular ser- 
vant that had let him in during the twenty-six 


years. This he could not do ; and her Majesty, 
not to be behind the lawyers, advised they should 
plead the statute of limitation. The lawyers, how- 
ever, persuaded her most excellent Majesty that 
such a proceeding would be against her interest. 
After being harassed about in this manner for a con- 
siderable time, the old, care-worn, broken-hearted 
master was most injuriously persuaded to suffer 
the business to be decided by one arbitrator only, 
instead of trusting to the laws of his country. The 
poor old gentleman never held up his head after- 
ward, but always used to say he should leave all 
his family beggars, which, alas ! proved too true. 
He shortly after died at his house in Manchester 
Street. He was a very worthy and an exceed- 
ingly clever man. On one occasion, Mr. Pitt sent 
for him to solve some difficulty in the finances 
of the country, for which none of the ministers 
could account. He instantly set them all right 
by showing that such an error was possible to 
occur, though it very seldom did occur. 

Besides the claims upon Queen Charlotte, the 
worthy preceptor had a bill against the Princess 
Charlotte for eight hundred pounds. On applying 
to the Prince of Wales for this money, he refused 
to pay it, and referred him to the king, who was 
then quite deranged. The Princess of Wales 
knew all these particulars, and told her daughter, 
the Princess Charlotte, the desperate state of the 
poor man's family. Her Royal Highness spoke 


to her uncle, the Duke of York, about it, who 
persuaded her that the venerable master was an 
old rogue, who had robbed the princesses and 
all the family, and her Royal Highness chose to 
believe him. That he was a scientific man, his 
books and valuable mathematical instruments bore 
ample testimony. These were sold after his death 
for eight thousand pounds, which went to discharge 
his debts. 

Many other instances might be recorded to 
prove the unfeeling and barbarous behaviour of 
the queen; but this alone must be sufficient 
to convince our readers how totally unfit her 
Majesty was to reign over a free people. 

In the September of this year. Lord Castle- 
reagh sent a challenge to Mr. Canning, which 
was accepted ; but the effects of the duel were 
not yery serious, though it subsequently led to 
the resignation of both. It is hardly worth while, 
perhaps, to recur to this now forgotten, and 
always, as far as the public were concerned, insig- 
nificant business. Lord Castlereagh acted as a 
vain and high-spirited man, who fancied his confi- 
dence betrayed, his abilities called in question, 
and, like an Irishman, saw but a short vista be- 
tween an offence and a duel. Mr. Canning, 
equally high-spirited, felt that he had got into 
a disagreeable business, and that the fairest escape 
from it would be to fight his way out. Lord 
Castlereagh's conduct, when we think of a sober 


and wise statesman, is ridiculous. Mr. Canning's, 
when we picture to ourselves a high-minded and 
frank-hearted gentleman, in spite of the plausi- 
bility of explanations, is displeasing. 

The wretched policy of this year required fifty- 
four millions of money to support it. 

The year 18 10 was ushered in under distressing 
and unsatisfactory circumstances. The royal family 
were divided amongst themselves, and every branch 
seemed to have a separate interest. Under these 
circumstances, it was not a matter of surprise that 
truth was now and then elicited ; for it is a veri- 
table saying that, "when rogues fall out, honest 
men are gainers." 

The king was at this time labouring under a 
severe attack of mental aberration ; the situation 
of the country, his children, and his own peculiar 
sorrows, made impressions on his mind of the 
most grievous description. 

In a former work of ours, called " The Authen- 
tic Records of the Court of England," we gave an 
account of the extraordinary and mysterious mur- 
der of one Sellis, a servant of the Duke of Cum- 
berland, which occurred this year. In that account, 
we did what we conceived to be our duty as histo- 
rians, — we spoke the truth. The truth, however, 
it appears, is not always to be spoken; for his 
Royal Highness instantly commenced a persecu- 
tion against us for a " malicious libel." We say 
persecution, because almost every person is aware 


that filing a criminal information against an indi- 
vidual can be done only with a view of* preventing 
the exposure of truth, which, though such proce- 
dure be according to English law, cannot be recon- 
ciled with the original intention of law, namely, 
to do justice both to the libelled and the libeller! 
In America, no such monstrosities disgrace the 
statute-book ; for there, if any person be accused 
of scandalum tnagnatuniy and can prove the truth 
of what he has stated, he is honourably acquitted. 
Yet as we are not in America, but in England, — 
the boasted land of liberty, — we must, forsooth, 
be seized as criminals, merely because we wish to 
institute an inquiry into the circumstances of the 
murder of an individual, whose assassin, or assas- 
sins, have hitherto escaped the slippery hands of 
justice. We are no cowards in regimentals, nor 
did we make our statement with a view of slander- 
ing the royal pensioner. We would have willingly 
contended with his Royal Highness in a court of 
law, if he had had the courage to have met us on 
fair grounds. At the time we write this, we know 
not what the judgment of Lord Tenterden — we 
beg his lordship's pardon, we should have said the 
court — may be; but, whatever the punishment 
awarded, we hope to meet it with that fortitude 
which never fails to uphold a man "conscious 
of doing no wrong." If the Duke of Cumber- 
land, however, imagines he can intimidate us from 
speaking the truth out of court, he has mistaken 


US. We are not, as we said in our first work, to 
be prevented from doing whatever we conceive 
to be our duty. Though it may not be in our 
power to prove who was the murderer, the very 
suspicious circumstances attending the death of 
poor Sellis fully warrant renewed inquiry. 

Passing over the various reports in circulation at 
the time of the murder, we proceed to notice the 
very contradictory evidence brought forward at 
the inquest. That we may not be accused of par- 
tiality, we take the report of this judicial proceed- 
ing from that Tory organ, The Morning Post^ 
which, it will be observed, deals out its abuse 
with no unsparing hand on the poor murdered 
man, whom it calls by the charitable appellation of 
villain, and sundry other hard names, which had 
better suited the well-known characters of other 
persons, who acted a prominent part in this foul 
business. After a few unmeaning preliminaries 
had been performed, — 

" Mr. Adams addressed the jury, and 'informed 
them of the violent attack that had been made 
upon the Duke of Cumberland ; and that there 
was very little doubt but it was done by the de- 
ceased. He stated, the circumstances had been 
fully investigated by the Privy Council on Thurs- 
day, and that the depositions of the numerous wit- 
nesses had been taken before Mr. Justice Read, 
which he should read to them ; after which the 
witnesses would be called before them, and the 


depositions would also be read to them, when they 
would have an opportunity of altering or enlarging, 
and the jury could put any question to them they 
thought fit." 

In this address, some of the privileges of royalty 
are explained. Because the murder had been com- 
mitted in a palace, the Privy Council must exam- 
ine the witnesses before they may be allowed to 
meet the jury, and their depositions taken by a 
justice, under the influence of the suspected party. 
The coroner may then tell the jury that there was 
very little doubt of the deceased person having 
attempted his master's life, and afterward cut- 
ting his own throat to avoid detection. Merciful 
heaven ! can this be called an impartial adminis- 
tration of justice.^ Are such careful proceedings 
ever adopted in the case of a poor man } To be 
sure, the jury were told they might ask any ques- 
tion they thought fit; but is it to be supposed 
that, after the inquiries they had undergone, the 
witnesses would let slip anything likely to crim- 
inate themselves or their royal master } 

"The first affidavit that was read was that of 
his Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland, which 
stated that about half-past two o'clock on Thurs- 
day morning he received two violent blows and 
cuts on his head ; the first impression upon his 
mind was, that a bat had got into the room, and 
was beating about his head ; but he was soon con- 
vinced to the contrary by receiving a third blow. 


He then jumped out of bed, when he received 
several more blows ; from the glimmering light 
afforded from a dull lamp in the fireplace, and the 
motion of the instrument that inflicted the wounds, 
they appeared like flashes of lightning before his 
eyes. He made for a door near the head of his 
bed, leading to a small room, to which the assassin 
followed him, and cut him across his thighs. His 
Royal Highness not being able to find his alarm- 
bell, which there is no doubt the villian had con- 
cealed, called with a loud voice for Neale (his valet 
in waiting) several times, who came to his assist- 
ance; and Neale, together with his Royal High- 
ness, alarmed the house." 

The blows of the assassin must have indeed 
been slight to resemble " a bat beating about the 
head of his Royal Highness;" but we cannot un- 
derstand how the cut of a sword can bear any simi- 
larity to the beating of a little animal, like a bat ! 
Poor Sellis, however, was but a little man, and his 
weak arm might be still more enfeebled by the con- 
sciousness of his ingratitude in attacking so kind 
and liberal a master ! Sellis had been the duke's 
page, or valet, for more than five years, in daily, 
nay, almost hourly, personal communication with 
him ; and it must, therefore appear very strange, if 
Sellis was really the assassin, that his master did 
not recognise him. If the room was so dark that 
the duke could not see the person attacking him, 
it is singular that the assassin could see to strike 


his Royal Highness, as he did by " cutting him 
across his thighs, after he was out of bed ! " As 
the supposed murderer followed the duke, who 
thought it best to take to his heels, we think his 
Royal Highness should have stated whether he 
meant his thighs in front or behind ; but, of course, 
an examination of the scars would soon set this 
matter at rest. They would, no doubt, be found 
behind, as it is unreasonable to suppose that, in a 
dark room, the pursuer could have cut at the pur- 
sued in front. The Duke of Cumberland is a 
field-marshal, and a braver man, it is said, never 
entered the field ; but in a dark room, with a man 
little more than half his weight, it would have 
been cowardly to fight, particularly as his Royal 
Highness might, if he had so wished, have taken 
the weapon out of Sellis's hand, and broken it 
about his head. No, no ; the Duke of Cumber- 
land knew what was due to his honour better than 
to take so mean an advantage of a weak adversary, 
and therefore coolly endeavoured to ring his bell, 
that a more suitable antagonist might be procured 
in his valet Neale ! 

" Cornelius Neale, sworn. — He said he was 
valet to the Duke of Cumberland, and that he 
was in close waiting upon his Royal Highness on 
Wednesday night, and slept in a bed in a room 
adjoining the duke's bedroom. A little before 
three o'clock, he heard the duke calling out, 
" Neale, Neale, I am murdered, and the murderer is 


in my bedroom ! " He went immediately to his 
Royal Highness, and found him bleeding from his 
wounds. The duke told him the door the assassin 
had gone out at ; he armed himself with a poker, 
and asked if he should pursue him. The duke re- 
plied " no,** but to remain with him. After moving a 
few paces, he stepped upon a sword ; and, although 
in the dark, he was convinced it was covered with 
blood ; it proved to be the duke's own regimental 
sword. The duke and witness then went to alarm 
the house, and got a light from the porter. The 
duke was afraid the murderer was still in his bed- 
room. His Royal Highness was obliged to lean 
upon him from the loss of blood, and he gave 
directions that no person should be let out of the 
house. They called up the witness's wife, who is 
the housekeeper, and told her to call Sellis. He 
then returned with the duke to his bedroom. At 
that time the duke was very faint from the great 
loss of blood. Upon examining the premises they 
found, in a second adjoining small room, a pair of 
slippers with the name of Sellis on them, and a 
dark lantern. The key of the closet was in the 
inside of the lock, and, to his knowledge, the key 
had not been in that state for ten years. He 
had reason to believe the wounds of the duke 
had been given by a sword. Sellis took out 
the duke's regimentals some time since, and put 
them by again, but left out the sword upon a 
sofa for two or three days. It is the same 



sword which he trod upon, and it was in a bloody 

"The foreman of the jury (Mr. Place, of Char- 
ing Cross) asked the witness if he thought the 
deceased had any reason to be dissatisfied with the 
duke. He replied, on the contrary, he thought 
Sellis had more reason to be satisfied than any other 
of the servants ; his Royal Highness had stood god- 
father for one of his children, the Princess Augusta 
godmother. The duke had shown him very par- 
ticular favour by giving him apartments for his 
wife and family, with coals and candles. 

"A juryman asked him if he ever heard the 
deceased complain of the duke. The witness 
asked if he was obliged to answer that question. 
The coroner informed him he must. He then 
stated that about two or three years since the duke 
advanced their board wages from \os, 6d. a week 
to 14$'., but at the same time took off 3j. 6d.y 
allowed for travelling. After this regulation was 
adopted, a paper was drawn up by the steward for 
the servants to sign, expressing their satisfaction 
at the regulation, which the deceased refused to 

sign, and said *he*d be d d if he did, and 

none but blackguards would sign it.* The stew- 
ard told him the duke said he must sign it, or his 
wife and family must quit the apartments he had 
given them, as the rest of the servants had signed 
it. He had never heard the deceased complain 
since. ' Within the last year, the duke and royal 


family had been extremely kind to him. He had 
never given him an angry word, although he had 
often made use of very bad language to him ; if 
he did, he never answered him. The deceased 
was of a very malicious disposition. He would 
never be contradicted, if he began a subject, for 
which reason he never wished to have any conver- 
sation with him. He frequently quarrelled with 
Mr. Paulet, one of the duke's servants, and fought 
with the steward at Kew. Lately the deceased 
had a bad cold, and the duke was so very kind 
toward him, in consequence, that he took him 
inside the carriage to Windsor. Sellis dressed the 
duke on Wednesday night. He had no doubt but 
Sellis intended that he should be charged with 
being the murderer, to get him out of the way." 

This Neale's evidence ought to be received with 
great caution. He slept in the next room to the 
duke, and when called upon for his assistance, 
stated his wish to pursue the murderer with a 
poker; but was prevented by his master's "fear 
of being left alone ! " In this courageous offer of 
Neale, however, he trampled upon a sword, which, 
although in total darkness, he was convinced was 
covered with blood ! We have no intention to 
dispute Neale's knowledge of this, or that " it was 
his master's own regimental sword." There have 
been so many wonderful people who could see as 
well in the dark as in the light, and describe the 
minutest particulars of an article as well with their 


eyes shut as open, that we ought not to be sur- 
prised at anything. Notwithstanding, many per- 
sons were surprised at the sagacity of Neale, not 
only in this, but in many other particulars. If the 
duke, " covered with gore, accompanied this ser- 
vant to alarm the house," the traces of blood on 
the doors, etc., leading to Sellis's room, might be 
very naturally accounted for. They, however, 
thought it better not to call Sellis themselves, but 
sent Neale's wife to do it ! Although the duke 
pointed out to his confidential man the door through 
which the villain had escaped, his Royal Highness 
**felt afraid the murderer was still in his bedroom," 
which we have no reason to doubt ! " A pair of 
slippers were left in an adjoining room, with the 
name of Sellis upon them." That Sellis left them 
there, however, is rather improbable ; because it is 
natural to suppose he would, if he had been the 
murderer, have gone to his master's room without 
slippers, or shoes of any kind, to make as little 
noise as possible. This circumstance, we are in- 
clined to think, was a planned affair, though badly 
executed ; for we know that these slippers were 
placed the wrong way, — a fact which will be here- 
after proved. Through the whole of Neale's evi- 
dence, not a word was said to show that Sellis had 
the least motive for murdering either the duke or 
himself. On the contrary, " Sellis had everything 
to expect from his master's Hving." 

In concluding our remarks upon Neale's evi- 


dence, we point the attention of our readers to the 
last sentence: "He had no doubt but Sellis in- 
tended that he (Neale) should be charged with 
being the murderer, to get him out of the way.*' 
Now, as there was not the slightest evidence to 
bear Neale out in this malicious assertion, we 
think, for his own sake, he had much better have 
kept the expression to himself. Some of our 
readers may not be aware of the cause Sellis had 
given this fellow servant to hate him ; but the fol- 
lowing letter, addressed to B. C. Stevenson, Esq., 
written by Sellis a few months before his death, 
will elucidate this matter a little : 

" St. James's, July 9, 1809. 
" Sir : — I am extremely anxious to know his 
Royal Highnesses decision concerning the evidence 
produced before you against Mr. Neale, and I beg 
you, sir, to have the goodness to relieve me from 
this most disagreeable suspense. If I may, sir, 
judge from appearance, either his Royal Highness 
is not acquainted with what has been proved, or 
his Royal Highness has entirely forgiven him. 
Should the former be the case, sir, I hope you 
will have the goodness to acquaint his Royal High- 
ness to the full extent of the roguery of this man ; 
and here it may be necessary to say, that the wit- 
nesses you have examined are all of them ready 
to take their oaths in a court of justice, and there 
to assert what they have already said before you. 


But, sir, should his Royal Highness have forgiven 
him, then I must be under the most disagreeable 
necessity to beg his Royal Highness to have the 
goodness to dispose of me as his Royal Highness 
may think proper, so that I may not have the mor- 
tification to live and act in the same room with a 
man I have convicted as a rogue, and with whom 
no human being is able to live on friendly terms. 
Had it been his Royal Highnesses pleasure to have 
had this business in a court of justice, the man 
would have been transported at least for seven 
years ; and what I am going to communicate to 
you now is, I believe, transportation for life. I 
have been told, sir, that Mr. Neale cheats his 
Royal Highness in everything he buys ; in two 
different articles I have already ascertained this to 
be a fact ; on the tgothpicks he gains fifty per cent., 
by charging eighteen pence for that for which he 
only pays one shilling, and on the soap he charges 
two shillings for that which he pays eighteen pence, 
and should his Royal Highness wish me to proceed 
with these discoveries, it will be found that the dis- 
honesty of this man has no bounds. The evidence 
you have taken, sir, and what I have communicated 
to Major Thornton, with which also you must be 
acquainted, you must be satisfied, that this man is 
as great a villain as ever existed ; no oath or prom- 
ise is binding with him ; and he relates alike that 
which he must have sworn to keep sacred in his 
bosom, as he will a most trifling thing ; and slan- 


ders and threatens with public exposure and large 
damages his benefactor and only maker of his for- 
tune, just as he would one of his own stamp. Sir, 
to serve his Royal Highness, I have always thought 
it as my greatest honour, and to serve him in any 
situation that his Royal Highness may be pleased 
to place me shall always be the greatest pride of 
my life ; but no longer can I live with this mon- 
ster. I have, sir, served his Royal Highness for 
nearly twelve years, and would rather forego all 
my wishes and pretensions, and beseech his Royal 
Highness to allow me permission to look out for 
another place. To your goodness, I trust, sir, that 
you will lay my case before his Royal Highness, 
and acquaint me with his Royal Highness's pleas- 
ure. I have the honour to be, sir, 

" Your most obedient and most humble servant, 

"J. Sellis. 
"5. C Stepltenson^ Esq,** 

In this letter, enough is set forth to make us 
receive the evidence of Neale with caution, if 
not to render him unworthy of belief altogether. 
Why the Duke of Cumberland retained Neale in 
his service after his peculating tricks had been 
discovered, and after the threat he held out against 
his royal master, we must leave our readers to 

"The jury proceeded to examine the bedroom 
of the royal duke, which they found in a most 


distressing and horrible state. It could not be 
discovered what his Royal Highness's nightcap 
was made of, it being completely soaked in blood ; 
the first blow given his Royal Highness was provi- 
dentially prevented from proving fatal, from the 
duke wearing a padded ribbon bandage round his 
cap, and a tassel, which came in contact with the 
sword; the bedclothes generally were blooded; 
the paper of the room, the prints and paintmgs, 
the door at the head of the bed (through which 
his Royal Highness endeavoured to make his 
escape) was cut with the sword at the time the 
villain was cutting at the duke, and the dark assas- 
sin must have followed his Royal Highness to the 
door of an anteroom, which was also spotted with 

Supposing Sellis to be the villain here meant, 
the wretched means he took to accomplish the end 
in view were so inadequate, that it were quite im- 
possible for him to have done all the bloody work 
so minutely related, from the position in which the 
parties were placed. The duke was in a modem 
high bed, his head well protected with " a padded 
ribbon bandage," the only vital part of him that 
was above the bedclothes, and the curtains drawn 
around him. Sellis was not taller than the level 
of the bedclothes, and yet he chose a sword to 
attack his recumbent master! In a contest so 
unequal, the duke might have annihilated Sellis 
in a minute. 


"The jury then proceeded to the room where 
the corpse of the deceased villain remamed. They 
found it with the whole of the body (except the 
head and feet) covered with blood ; the razor which 
did the deed in a bloody state. The deceased's 
neck-cloth was cut through in several places. The 
drawers, wash-hand basin-stand, and the basin, were 
also bloody." 

To some people, such a state of the room may 
appear anything but convincing of the guilt of 
Sellis; yet to such sensible men as were on the 
jury, all confirmed the verdict afterward recorded. 
Sellis, from his neck-cloth having been "cut 
through in several places,'* blood being sprinkled 
in all parts of the room, and an appearance of some 
one having washed their hands in the basin, must 
have been his own murderer, and consequently 
the assassin of the Duke of Cumberland ! 

"After the examination of the rooms, the jury 
proceeded to the investigation of the witnesses. 

"Thomas Jones, a surgeon and apothecary, of 
the Strand, said he had attended the Duke of 
Cumberland's household since the year 1803. He 
knew the deceased well. He never saw him in a 
low or desponding way. The last time he had 
seen him was on Monday evening ; he observed 
he was not very well, from a cold. He had seen 
him on the Sunday previous, when he was very 
anxious for the state of his child, having lately 
lost one. On Tuesday the child got better. He 


observed nothing particular about him for six 
weeks past, when he complained of a pain in his 
chest. He never complained to him of harsh 
treatment from the duke. He attended him four 
or five years since for a pain in his chest, which 
he said was brought on by riding on horseback. 
He understood he lived very happy with his wife. 
His wife told him it was of no use his sending 
physic for the pain in his chest, for he would not 
take it. He never observed any symptoms of 
derangement in him.** 

It will here be perceived that Sellis was neither 
deranged, nor had the slightest cause for attempt- 
ing his own life, or that of his master. Is it not 
singular that Mr. Jones mentioned nothing about 
the wound in Sellis's throat, or the methodical posi- 
tion in which the murdered man was found } Was 
he permitted to examine the body.^ If he was 
not, dark suspicion must ever attend upon those 
who refused any medical man such a privilege; 
and if he did view it, why not have given his opin- 
ion of the matter? But this affords another 
proof of the unfairness of the proceedings on 
this inquest. 

"Ann Neale, the housekeeper, said she was 
called up at about three o'clock on Thursday 
morning by her husband ; at the same time she 
heard the duke saying, *I am murdered.' She 
got up with all possible speed, and saw the duke 
bleeding very much in the valet's room. She went 


with several others to the door of the deceased, 
to call him ; she found it fastened on the inside, 
and no answer was given to their calls. She and 
other servants went to another door, which opened 
to his room ; as they approached the door, they 
heard a noise, as if a man was gargling water in 
his throat. The porter entered first, and he ex- 
claimed, 'Good God! Mr. Sellis has cut his 
throat.' He was a very obstinate and quarrel- 
some man. He would not bear contradiction, not 
even from the duke. His Royal Highness and 
Princess Augusta stood (by proxy) to his last child. 
The duke was very partial to him, and allowed his 
family to sleep in the house. His Royal Highness 
allowed him to ride in his carriage with him, when 
travelling, since his illness. The Princess Eliza- 
beth gave his wife two pieces of muslin lately. 
The Princess Augusta made her a present of sev- 
eral articles of value. The principal acquaintance 
the deceased had was a Mr. Greville, a servant to 
the Duke of Cambridge, and Mr. and Mrs. Du- 
pree, wax-chandlers. About three weeks since, 
he told her Mrs. Marsh, the housekeeper to the 
Royal Cockpit, was dead, and that he should 
speak to the duke to give the place to his wife ; 
and if he did not succeed with Lord Darthmouth 
for that, he should apply to him to get his wife a 
sinecure, as he had asked his Royal Highness to 
get him a messenger's place, but he supposed the 
duke did not like to part with him. She asked 


him about a week since if he had succeeded. And 
he replied he had not yet He and his family 
were in so much favour, that every court-day, 
when the queen came to dress at the duke's apart- 
ments for the drawing-room, Sellis's wife and chil- 
dren were had down for the queen and princess to 
see them. On the last drawing-room the child the 
princess stood for was had into the queen's private 
apartments. A special privilege was granted to 
SelUs of a bell being permitted to be put up, to 
ring him to the duke from his family's apartments. 
The deceased would quarrel with people sooner 
than give up a point." 

This woman's description of the door of Sellis's 
room being fastened inside was, doubtless, thought 
to be a very clever afifair. Guilt, however, gener- 
ally betrays itself; for, instead of bursting open 
the door so secured, "she, and other servants, 
went to another door, which opened to his room," 
and which door was not fastened inside. Now 
would not the first impulse of every person, uncon- 
scious of crime, in such a peculiar situation as this 
woman was placed, have rather suggested the 
breaking open of Sellis's door than going around to 
another ? If both doors had been secured, the thing 
would have appeared a little more consistent. 

" Benjamin Smith, porter to the Duke of Cum- 
berland, said that, about a quarter before three 
o'clock, he was called up by the duke and Neale, 
who said his Royal Highness had been murdered. 


He got up, armed himself with a sword, and then 
called to the soldiers on guard not to suffer any 
person to go out of the house. He then went to 
call the deceased, but receiving no answer, he 
went to his family's apartments, and called through 
the keyhole. A child answered he was sleeping 
at the duke's. He then, with several of his fellow- 
servants, went to Sellis's apartments again, when, 
on hearing the noise in his throat, he supposed 
somebody else was murdered in the house. When 
he first saw the duke, he was covered with blood, 
and Neale said the duke was murdered. There had 
not been any quarrel between any of the servants 
and Sellis, to his knowledge." 

This was the porter described by the last wit- 
ness as having exclaimed, '< Good God ! Mr. Sellis 
has cut his throat ! " There is, however, a little 
difference between his own statement and that of 
Mrs. Neale; such as his going "to his family's 
apartments" after "receiving no answer from 
Sellis," and then " returning to Sellis's apartment, 
when, on hearing the noise in his throat, he sup- 
posed somebody else was murdered ! " If this 
man thought that Sellis cut his own throat, as 
stated by Mrs. Neale, what did he mean by say- 
ing " he supposed somebody else was murdered ? " 
Do not the porter's own words imply that Sellis 
had been murdered, and not that he had murdered 
himself ? Yet the jury saw no discrepancy in the 
evidence I 


More Evidence — The Position of a Razor — The Morning 
Posts Omission — Character of the Deceased — A Verdict 
Felo dese — A Housemaid's Testimony — Servant's Dislike — 
« Oh, Talented Man I "— A Model Husband — That He Who 
Runs May Read — Public Dissatisfaction — " The Palace and 
Not the Public 1" — A Ridiculous Observation — Contradic- 
tory Evidence. 

[atthew henry grasham, 

a servant, said he armed himself with 

pistols upon his being called up. He 

was not able to find his way to Sellis's apartments 

by the regular door, but found his way to another, 

when he and his two fellow-servants were afraid to 

enter the room on accx)unt of the groans and noise 

in the throat of the deceased, although he had two 

pistols, and another had a sword. He had been so 

much frightened ever since that he had not been 

able to visit the room where the body lay. He 

considered Sellis a civil, well-behaved man. He 

seldom heard Neale and Sellis speak together; 

did not suppose he ever heard them exchange ten 

words together. The last time the duke went to 

Windsor, he took Sellis inside the coach, because 

he would not expose him to the morning air. He 



never observed Sellis to be low-spirited; he did 
not appear so well lately as in general, in conse- 
quence of his having a cold/* 

This witness, it appears, although terribly 
alarmed, was unable to find out the regular door 
to Sellis's apartments, but found his way to an- 
other, more difficult of access. Now, without 
denying the truth of this statement, it seems rather 
singular that he should not have gone the way 
he knew best ; but, from his cowardly nature, he 
probably followed Mrs. Neale, who appeared to 
know the easiest way of gaining admittance to the 
chamber of horror. Grasham also added his testi- 
mony to almost all the other witnesses as to the 
amiable character of the murdered Sellis, as well 
as proving his perfect sanity. 

" Mr. Jackson, a surgeon. — He had examined 
the body of the deceased ; he found the windpipe 
completely divided ; he had seen larger wounds 
done by a man's own hands ; the arteries on both 
sides were completely separated ; he had no doubt 
but they were done by a razor or sharp instru- 
ment ; the wound was five or six inches wide, and 
an inch and a half deep. He had no other wound 
in his body, and had no doubt but his throat being 
cut was the cause of his death." 

This was the only medical gentleman allowed to 
give evidence as to the state of the murdered man's 
wounds. We are totally unacquainted with Mr. 
Jackson, and cannot, therefore, be actuated by any 


malice toward him ; neither do we wish to accuse 
him with interested motives when he made the 
above statement. But justice asks, why was not 
the opinion of six medical men, at least, recorded 
on this very momentous head ? We will, however, 
tell the reader why. One or two other profes- 
sional persons did examine the body of poor Sellis, 
and, if they had been allowed to give their opinion, 
would assuredly have convinced every honest man 
of the impossibility of Sellis being his own mur- 
derer. One of these. Doctor Carpue, has fre- 
quently been heard to say that "the head of 
Sellis was nearly severed from his body, and that 
even the joint was cut through." Doctor Carpue 
has also stated that "no man could have the 
power to hold an instrument in his hand to cut 
one-eighth of the depth of the wound in the throat 
of Sellis." 

"Sergeant Creighton, of the Coldstream Regi- 
ment of Foot Guards, said, in consequence of the 
alarm of the duke being murdered, he went with 
several men into the house; when they came to 
the deceased's room, the servants were afraid to 
go in on account of the noise ; he in consequence 
took the candle from them. He found the de- 
ceased dead, with his throat cut, and a razor about 
two yards from the bed ; the deceased was quite 
dead, but not cold ; the blood was then running 
and frothing out of his neck. He did not appear 
to have struggled with any person, but had his 


hands quite straight dv^^oi by his side. The de- 
ceased had on pantaloons and stockings." 

Notwithstanding part of this man's evidence 
was suppressed, we have here sufficient to prove 
that Sellis was not his own murderer. No man, 
after cutting his head nearly off, could possibly 
throw a razor "two yards from his bed."' A 
man in the agonies of death would rather have 
grasped the deadly instrument in his hand ; for 
this circumstance has almost always been observed 
in those persons committing suicide. Further 
than this, however, the witness states, "he did 
not appear to have struggled with any person, 
but had his hands quite straight down by his 
side." Every man, who will not abjectly resign his 
reason, cannot deny that such a position of the 
hands was contrary to the natural struggles of a 
dying man, and that it was quite impossible for 
Sellis to have so systematically laid out his own 
body. But the suppressed evidence of this ser- 
geant, which afterward appeared in The News, 
fully proved that the first impression of the duke's 

' When the inquest was held the razor was found on some 
drawers in the room ; but it was placed there by a Bow Street 
officer, by mistake, — at least so it was reported. We, however, 
consider even the very partial evidence published' in the Morning 
Post quite sufficient to prove that poor Sellis had nothing to do 
with the razor himself. Some one else must have thrown it 
'* two yards from the bed.** The murdered man could not possi- 
bly have so exerted himself after the infliction of such a severe 


servants was that Sellis had been murdered, and 
not that he had murdered himself. For Creigh- 
ton says : 

''On entering the house, accompanied by an- 
other sergeant and two or three soldiers, he met 
two servants, who told him that the Duke of Cum- 
berland had been wounded and that Sellis was 
. murdered." 

This witness also corroborated some other im- 
portant points, for instance : 

" On the floor before the bed lay a white neck- 
erchief, cut in several places. On the opposite 
side of the room was a wash-hand basin, with some 
water in it, which looked as if some person had 
been washing blood in it. The curtains were 
sprinkled with blood, as well as several parts of 
the room ; at that time it was broad daylight." 

When we ask why the Morning Post thought it 
prudent to omit this and much other important 
evidence^ we could give the because; but our 
readers will easily understand it. 

''James Ball, a footman, said, upon the alarm 
being given, he inquired of a female servant what 
was the matter. She informed him the duke was 
murdered. He went down to the porter with all 
possible speed, who desired him to call Sellis, 
which he did, but could not gain admittance ; he 
went to the other door, when he saw the deceased 
with his throat cut on his bed ; the sight was so 
shocking, he drew back and almost fainted. His 


wife since told him he ate a hearty supper, shook 
hands with her, and bid her good night at parting. 
He never quarrelled with the deceased. He under- 
stood the origin of the quarrel between Sellis and 
Neale was Neale's taking a newspaper out of Sellis's 
hand. The duke was particularly partial to Sellis, 
and behaved better to him, he thought, than to 
any other servant. Sellis and Neale were obliged 
frequently to be in the same room together, but 
he never observed anything particular between 
them. Sellis was a very sober man. If he was 
not at the duke's apartments upon his business, he 
was sure to be found with his family. The duke 
continued his kindness to the last. He had heard 
Sellis say he could never be friendly with a man 
(meaning Neale) who had treated him as he had 
done. Sellis used, some years since, to ride in 
the carriage with the duke, but since a box has 
been made to the carriage he was ordered by the 
duke to ride there. He objected to that, saying it 
shook him very much." 

This servant, like most of the others, was ordered 
to call Sellis, and his evidence, in this particular, 
seems merely a rehearsal of the rest. The cor- 
roboration which Ball here gave of the excellent 
character of Sellis had been sufficient, one would 
think, for any jury to have acquitted the poor 
fellow of any participation in the attempt upon the 
duke, or with being his own murderer. In Ball's 
evidence, also, the dislike which Sellis entertained 


toward Neale is again set forth, and which, in our 
opinion, goes far to prove the occasion of it, which 
we have before explained. Neale, in his evidence, 
attempted to turn this dislike to his own advan- 
tage, by charging Sellis with the attack upon his 
master, and with endeavouring to fix the crime 
upon him (Neale) out of revenge. " A guilty con- 
science needs no accuser," — a saying perhaps 
never better exemplified. 

" Thomas Creedy, a private in the Coldstream 
Regiment of Guards, who was on duty, and the 
first man who entered the room of Sellis. — The 
servant being afraid, he trembled so much that he 
let the candle fall, but he caught it up, and pre- 
vented it from going out. After seeing Sellis's 
throat cut, and hearing robbers were in the bouse, 
he looked imder the bed. He did not see a coat 
in the room (which is very small), although there 
was a blue one belonging to Sellis, with blood on 
the left cuff, and blood on the side. He observed ^ 
a wash-hand basin with blood on the sides, and 
blood in some water. The deceased did not appear 
to have struggled with any one ; his head was 
against his watch at the head of the bed." 

This was one of the soldiers who accompanied 
Sergeant Creighton ; but whether the sergeant or 
this man was the " first who entered the room of 
Sellis," is not exactly clear. Creighton, in his 
evidence, says " it was broad daylight," and, there- 
fore, why candles were required is rather difficult 


to comprehend. Yet, notwithstanding the small- 
ness of the room, " he did not see a coat, although 
(as he himself confidently states) there was a blue 
one, belonging to Sellis." How could this witness 
know it belonged to Sellis, whom he probably 
never saw alive ? As to " blood being on the left 
cufF and on the side," what proof did he adduce of 
this, for he himself never saw the coat at all ? He, 
however, observed a wash-hand basin, in the very 
suspicious state described by other witnesses, and 
gave additional evidence of Sellis's head being 
" against his watch at the head of the bed ; " in- 
deed, the poor man's head only hung by a small 
piece of skin, and his murderers had therefore 
placed it in that position to keep it from falling 
off altogether. Is it not monstrous, then, that 
men could be found so lost to honour as to record 
a verdict of felo de se f 

"John Probert and John Windsor, two privates 
in the Guards, said they were on duty opposite the 
duke's house at the time of the alarm, and were 
positive no person went out of the house after the 
alarm was given." 

The evidence of these men merely shows that 
Sellis was murdered by some one belonging to the 
house, which we see no reason to dispute. 

" Thomas Strickland, imder butler to his Royal 
Highness the Duke of Cumberland, said he saw 
the deceased in the duke's bedroom about ten 
minutes before eleven o'clock on Wednesday night ; 


he was surprised at seeing him there, supposing 
him to be in close waiting upon the duke. The 
deceased appeared to have a shirt in his hand ; he 
looked very earnest at him, but had a smile on his 
countenance. He went to take a cupful of light 
drink for the duke to take in the night, which it 
was his duty to do. He never heard Sellis speak 
disrespectfully of the duke." 

No satisfactory reason is here given why this 
man should have felt surprised at seeing Sellis in 
the bedroom of his master; for Sellis was there 
only in the performance of his duty, which the 
witness acknowledged. How ardently have those 
connected with this black affair endeavoured to fix 
the odium upon the murdered man ! Yet how 
futile, to all reasonable men, must appear their ob- 
servations ! Sellis, with a '' shirt in one hand," and 
" a cup of light drink " in the other, in the Duke of 
Cumberland's bedroom, ought not to have created 
surprise in any one, knowing the peculiar situation 
which Sellis filled in the household of his Royal 
Highness. Did Strickland really feel surprised, 
or was he anxious to say so } But it will be ob- 
served that even this witness confessed "he never 
heard Sellis speak disrespectfully of the duke." 
Can it, then, be believed he was guilty of the 
attack upon his royal master ? 

" Sarah Varley, housemaid to the Duke of Cum- 
berland, said she put two bolsters into the closet 
in the second anti-little room adjoining on Wednes- 


day night, they being only put upon his Royal 
Highness's bed for ornament in the day-time ; there 
was no lantern in the closet at the time she put 
them there, and the dark lantern found in the 
closet is like one she had seen on the deceased's 
dressing-table. There was no sword or scabbard 
when she put the bolster there." 

The dark lantern, sword, etc., were not in the 
closet when this woman went there to put away 
the bolsters. Well, what of that.? Might they 
not have been put there afterward.? As to "the 
dark lantern found in the closet being like one she 
had seen on the deceased's dressing-table," proves 
nothing against Sellis, even if this lady had posi- 
tively sworn to its being the same. It were very 
easy to place a lantern in Sellis's room, and after- 
ward remove it to the aforesaid closet. But we 
have little doubt that more than one dark lantern 
might have been found on premises where so many 
secret deeds had been done. To have made this 
matter better evidence, why did not some kind 
friend write the name of Sellis on the lantern, 
similar to the plan adopted with the slippers? 
Such a scheme might have brought the very scru- 
pulous jury to their verdict three hours sooner at 

" James Paulet, a valet to the duke, first saw his 
Royal Highness in his room with Neale holding 
him up. The duke told him he was murdered, 
and the murderers must be in his room. The 


witness replied, he was afraid they should be all 
murdered, on seeing all the doors opened. The 
duke insisted they should both stay with him. 
His Royal Highness repeatedly called for Sellis. 
In a short time after, some person called at the 
door that Sellis was found murdered. The duke 
appeared very anxious for the safety of Sellis, and 
as soon as Surgeon Home had dressed his woimds 
he sent him to attend to Sellis. Mr. Home soon 
returned, and said there was no doubt but that the 
man had killed himself. Sellis cautioned him not 
to be friends with Neale. He complained to him 
of the duke's making him ride in a dickey, as it 
shook him much, and riding backwards made him 
ill. Sellis, however, had the carriage altered to go 
easier, without asking the duke's leave, at Windsor, 
and he had appeared content with it ever since. 
Sellis often talked about leaving the duke's service, 
saying he could not remain in the family if Neale 
did. He urged him to the contrary, reminding him 
how kind the duke was to him and his family." 

The duke's anxiety for the services of his faith- 
ful valet, Sellis, manifested itself by his Royal 
Highness repeatedly calling for him. "Some 
person called at the door that Sellis was found 
murdered," — another proof that the first impres- 
sion of the servants was the true one. Indeed, 
truth is ever uppermost in the mind ; but artifice 
requires time to mature its plans. We are sure 
that our readers will admire with us the " anxiety 


of his Royal Highness for the safety of Sellis;" 
for, as soon as his wounds were dressed, the duke 
sent his own surgeon to attend Sellis. Where 
shall we look for greater care or condescension 
than this? How truly fortunate was the duke 
in being blessed with so expeditious and so pene- 
trating a surgeon ! " Mr. Home soon returned, 
and said "there was no doubt that the man had 
killed himself." Oh, talented man, who could 
perceive at a glance that '< the man had killed him- 
self ! " Doctor Carpue must never more pretend 
to a knowledge of surgery when his opinion can 
be set aside by a single glance of a man of such 
eminence in his profession as Mr. Home. As to 
the joint in his neck being cut through, Mr. Home 
easily accounted for. What! a man cut his own 
head off, and wash his hands afterward ! The 
further testimony of Paulet only proves the dislike 
which Sellis entertained for Neale, and the caution 
he gave to all the other servants to avoid him. 

"The widow of the deceased was examined 
Her appearance and evidence excited the greatest 
compassion and interest ; it tended to prove he 
was a good husband, not embarrassed in his cir- 
cumstances, and that he had parted with her in the 
usual way, without any suspicion on her part of 
what he had in contemplation.'' 

Well, even this admission of the substance of the 
poor woman's evidence is sufficient to throw dis- 
credit upon the jury, who, "after deliberating for 


upwards of an hour, returned a verdict of felo de 
se*' As Mrs. Neale's evidence, however, " excited 
the greatest compassion and interest," The Post^ 
acting impartially, ought to have printed it at 
length, as tending to prove how little the interest 
of Sellis was involved in his master's murder, and 
how wholly unprepared the poor woman must have 
been to find her husband accused of committing 
such a deed. For instance : 

"She never heard him complain of the treat- 
ment he received from his Royal Highness ; but, 
on the contrary, was highly gratified by the kind- 
ness he and other branches of the royal family 
had showed him, particularly the present of muslin 
which witness had received from the queen, and 
Princess Augusta standing godmother to his child. 
He was not embarrassed in his circumstances, for 
she did not know of any debt he owed but one to 
the apothecary. Since the birth of their last child, 
about eight months ago, he never spent an evening 
out, but was always with his family when not em- 
ployed with the duke. He belonged to no club or 
society. During his illness he was sometimes giddy, 
but never took the medicines that were prescribed 
him by the surgeon, saying that regular living was 
the best medicine. He sometimes talked of leav- 
ing the duke's service, on account of his disputes 
with Neale, but she remonstrated with him on his 
imprudence in entertaining such a wish when they 
had a good house and plenty of coals and candles 


allowed them. The subject was not mentioned 
within the last two years. After supper on 
Wednesday he mixed a glass of brandy and water, 
which he made her drink, as she was troubled 
with spasms in the stomach. He partook of a 
little of it, shook hands, and wished her a good 
night, and she never saw him more cheerful. He 
took some clean linen away with him, and said he 
would bring home the dirty linen on the following 
morning. She said he was a tender father and an 
affectionate husband." 

Let every unbiassed individual read this, and 
then judge of the monstrous and unnatural verdict 
returned by the jury. Some further statements 
were given to us by a gentleman who received the 
communication a few years back from Mrs. Sellis 
herself : 

"The heartbroken widow said that she had 
been brought up from a child in the service of 
the Princess Augusta, and that he had been many 
years in that of the Duke of Cumberland. Their 
marriage had, therefore, taken place under the 
special sanction of their royal master and mistress. 
They had one child, a daughter, to whom the prin- 
cess condescended to stand godmother, and it was 
the practice of the parents, on the return of every 
birthday, to present the child in her best array to 
her royal godmother, who always distinguished her 
by some little present as a token of recognition. 
The birthday of the child was a few days after the 


death of the father; and the widow represents 
the conversation which occurred between her and 
her husband on the evening of his death as con- 
sisting, among other things, in consultations as to 
the cap and dress in which the child should be 
presented to the princess ; so little did he appear 
to have in view the event which followed. He 
was accustomed to spend all the time not required 
on his attendance on his master with her, to whom 
he was in the habit of communicating every little 
incident in which he was concerned that he thought 
might be interesting to her. On the night in ques- 
tion, he was just as usual, nothing in his conversa- 
tion or manner betokening the least agitation, much 
less the contemplation of the murder of his master, 
on whose favour, as she says, their whole hopes 
for subsistence and comfort depended. According 
to her account, he was habitually civil, sober, frugal 
in his Uttle expenses, and attentive to his duties. 
His wife and his child appeared the whole world 
to him ; and the poor woman declared that, when 
he parted from her, but a few hours before the 
dreadful catastrophe occurred, the committal of a 
wrong toward the duke appeared as improbable 
a proceeding from him as the destruction of her 
and her child. In fact, the one was involved in 
the other ; for when these circumstances came to 
our knowledge a few years ago, she represented 
herself as in temporary want and distress." 

It was, however, thought prudent to pension 


Mrs. Sellis and her mother, who offered her re- 
marks very freely about this mysterious transac- 
tion. They were both privately sent out of the 
coimtry (it is believed to Germany), but, with all 
our efforts, we have not been able to ascertain 
where they now reside, as their evidence had 
much assisted us in proving the statements made 
in our work, entitled "The Authentic Records," 

The public appeared much dissatisfied with the 
verdict of the jury, and one or two publications 
spoke rather openly regarding the impropriety and 
suspicious nature of the whole proceeding, throw- 
ing out some dark insinuations against the royal 
duke. In order to counteract this. Sir Everard 
Home, the extraordinary man whose perceptive 
faculties are described on the inquest by the name 
of Mr. Home, published the following declaration 
relative to it : 

"Much pains having been taken to involve in 
mystery the murder of Sellis, the late servant of his 
Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland, I feel 
it a public duty to record the circumstances re- 
specting it that came within my own observation, 
which I could not do while the propagators of such 
reports were before a public tribunal. 

"I visited the Duke of Cumberland upon his 
being wounded, and found my way from the great 
hall to his apartment by the traces of blood which 


were left on the passages and staircase. I found 
him on the bed still bleeding, his shirt deluged 
with blood, and the coloured drapery, above the 
pillow, sprinkled with blood from a wounded artery, 
which puts on an appearance that cannot be mis- 
taken by those who have seen it. This could not 
have happened had not the head been lying on the 
pillow when it was wounded. The night ribbon, 
which was wadded, the cap, scalp, and skull were 
obliquely divided, so that the pulsation of the ar- 
teries of the brain were distinguished. While 
dressing this and the other wounds, report was 
brought that Sellis was wounded, if not murdered. 
His Royal Highness desired me to go to him, as I 
had declared his Royal Highness out of immediate 
danger. A second report came, that Sellis was 
dead. I went to his apartment, found the body 
lying on his side on the bed, without his coat and 
neckcloth, the throat cut so effectually that he 
could not have survived above a minute or two. 
The length and direction of the wound were such 
as left no doubt of its being given by his own hand. 
Any struggle would have made it irregular. He 
had not even changed his position ; his hands lay 
as they do in a person who has fainted ; they had 
no marks of violence upon them ; his coat hung 
upon a chair, out of the reach of blood from the 
bed ; the sleeve, from the shoulder to the wrist, 
was sprinkled with blood, quite dry, evidently from 
a wounded artery ; and from such kind of sprink- 



ling the arm of the assassin of the Duke of Cum- 
berland could not escape. 

" In returning to the duke, I found the doors of 
all the state apartments had marks of bloody fingers 
on them. The Duke of Cumberland, after being 
wounded, could not have gone anywhere but to the 
outer doors and back again, since the traces of 
blood were confined to the passages from the one 

to the other. 

" EvERARD Home." 

We regret, with Sir Everard Home, that "so 
much pains should have been taken to involve in 
mystery the murder of Sellis,** but such pains were 
taken in the palace, and not by the public. Sir 
Everard's description of the matter, however, is 
only calculated to involve it in still greater mystery 
and contradiction. For instance, "he found the 
body lying on his side on the bed, the throat so 
effectually cut that he could not have survived 
above a minute or two." How a man could cut 
his throat so effectually, when lying on his side, 
for "he had not even changed his position," is 
rather a puzzling matter to people of common 
sense ! yet Sir Everard says " the length and direc- 
tion of the wound were such as left no doubt of its 
being given by his own hand." In a conversation 
we had with Mr. Place, the foreman of the jury, a 
few weeks since, that gentleman informed us " the 
man lived twenty minutes after his throat was 


cut/* We do not mean to say that Mr. Place's 
knowledge of this matter is to be put in compe- 
tition with that of Sir Everard Home; but Mr. 
Place urged this circumstance to us as confirmatory 
of Sellis having murdered himself. It is, there- 
iore, very extraordinary that Sir Everard Home 
did not set the talented foreman right upon this 
all-important point, as it might have been the 
means of producing a widely different verdict. 
With regard to "the hands having no marks of 
violence upon them,*' we can only say that such 
an accoimt is contrary to the report of other per- 
sons who saw them as well as Mr. Home ; for both 
his hands and wrists bore evident marks of vio- 
lence. The desire which Sir Everard manifests, 
in this account, to bring proof against Sellis for an 
attempt to assassinate his master has more of zeal 
than prudence in it ; for, in speaking of the blood 
said to be found upon Sellis*s coat, the learned 
doctor asserts it to be "just such kind of sprinkling 
the arm of the assassin of the duke could not es- 
cape." How ridiculous must such an observation 
as this appear to any man, possessed of common 
understanding ! Sellis was reported to have used a 
sword in this pretended attempt upon his master's 
life, the length of which and the position of the 
duke would render it next to impossible for any 
blood of the duke's to reach him. The worthy 
knight further says, when speaking of the matters 
in Sellis*s room, " his coat hung upon a chair, out 


of the reach of blood from the bed ; " but several 
witnesses upon the inquest stated that " blood was 
found all over the room, and the hand-basin ap- 
peared as if some person had been washing blood 
in it.** What is the reason, then, why blood might 
not have been sprinkled upon the coat of the mur- 
dered man as well as " upon the curtains, on several 
parts of the floor, and over the wash-basin ? " Why 
did Sir Everard Home omit to mention these im- 
portant particulars in his attempt to explain away 
the "mystery of the murder of Sellis?'* His 
description of the dreadful wounds of his royal 
master are also rather at variance with the idea the 
duke himself gave of them, " the beating of a bat 
about his head." The skilful surgeon concludes 
his statement by saying "the Duke of Cumber- 
land, after being wounded, could not have gone any- 
where but to the outer doors and back again, since 
the traces of blood were confined to the passages 
from the one to the other ; " when it will be ob- 
served, in Neale's evidence, that "the duke and 
witness went to alarm the house, and got a light 
from the porter." Now we may naturally suppose 
the porter slept at some distance from the duke, 
and therefore either Sir Everard Home or Neale 
must have made a slight mistake in this particular ; 
for we cannot accuse two such veritable personages 
with intentionally contradicting each other ! 


A Deposition — A Bloody Sword — ** A Horrific Scene " — The 
Jnry Dissatisfied — '* (Signed) Jew" — A Lawyer-like Pro- 
ceeding — The Deponent Speaks — A Jumble of Words — 
An Illegal Inquest — Affidavits from Interested Persons — 
Impartial Information — A King Childish and Blind — The 
Prince Is Regent — A Disgraced Duke as Commander-in- 

jAVING now carefully and dispassionately 
examined all the evidence brought for- 
ward to prove Sellis an assassin and a 
suicide, we proceed to lay before our readers a few 
particulars tending to confirm an opposite opinion. 
Mr. Jew, then in the household of the duke, and 
who probably is now alive (information of which 
fact might be ascertained by application to the 
King of Belgium) was inclined to give his depo- 
sition upon this subject, in the following terms, 
alleging, as his reason, the very severe pangs of 
conscience he endured, through the secrecy he had 
manifested upon this most serious affair. 


"I was in the duke's household in May, 1810, 
and on the evening of the 31st I attended his 
Royal Highness to the opera ; this was the even- 



ing previous to Sellis's death. That night it was 
my turn to undress his Royal Highness. On our 
arriving at St. James's, I found Sellis had retired 
for the night, as he had to prepare his master's 
apparel, etc., and to accompany him on a journey 
early in the morning. 

" I slept that night in my usual room ; but 
Neale, another valet to the duke, slept in an apart- 
ment very slightly divided from that occupied by 
his Royal Highness. A few days previous to this 
date, I was commanded by my master to lay a 
sword upon one of the sofas in his bedchamber, 
and I did so. After undressing his Royal High- 
ness, I retired to bed. I had not been long asleep, 
when I was disturbed by Neale, who told me to 
get up immediately, as my master the duke was 
nearly murdered. I lost no time, and very soon 
entered his Royal Highness's bedroom. His Royal 
Highness was then standing nearly in the middle 
of the chamber, apparently quite cool and com- 
posed; his shirt was bloody, and he commanded 
me to fetch Sir Henry Halford, saying, «I am 
severely wounded.' The sword, which a few days 
before I had laid upon the sofa, was then lying on 
the floor, and was very bloody. I went with all 
possible haste for Sir Henry, and soon returned 
with him. I stood by when the wounds were 
examined, none of which were of a serious nature 
or appearance. That in his hand was the most 


"During this period, which was neariy two 
hours, neither Neale nor Sellis had been in the 
duke's room, which appeared to me a very unac- 
countable circumstance. At length, when all the 
bustle of dressing the wounds (which were very 
inconsiderable) was over, and the room arranged, 
the duke said, 'Call Sellis I' I went to Sellis's 
door, and, upon opening it, the most horrific scene 
presented itself : Sellis was lying perfectly straight 
in the bed, the head raised up against the head- 
board, and nearly severed from the body; his 
hands were lying quite straight on each side of 
him, and upon examination I saw him weltering 
in blood, it having covered the under part of the 
body. He had on his shirt, his waistcoat, and his 
stockings ; the inside of his hands were perfectly 
clean, but on the outside were smears of blood. 
His watch was hanging up over his head, wound 
up. His coat was carefully folded inside out, and 
laid over the back of a chair. A razor, covered 
with blood, was lying at a distance from his body, 
but too far ofif to have been used by himself, or to 
have been thrown there by him in such a muti- 
lated condition, as it was very apparent death 
must have been immediate after such an act. 

" The wash-basin was in the stand, but was half 
full of bloody water. Upon examining Sellis's 
cravat, it was found to be cut. The padding which 
he usually wore was covered with silk and quilted ; 
but, what was most remarkable, both the padding 


and the cravat were cut, as if some person had 
made an attempt to cut the throat with the cravat 
on ; then, finding the woollen or cotton stuffing to 
impede the razor, took it off, in order more readily 
to effect the purpose. 

" During the time the duke's wounds were being 
dressed, the deponent believes Neale was absent, 
in obedience to arrangement, and was employed in 
laying Sellis*s body in the form in which it was 
discovered, as it was an utter impossibility 
that a self-murderer could have so disposed of 

" Deponent further observes, that Lord Ellen- 
borough undertook to manage this affair, by arrang- 
ing the proceedings for the inquest ; and also that 
every witness was previously examined by him ; 
also, that the first jury, being unanimously dissat- 
isfied with the evidence adduced, as they were not 
permitted to see the body in an undressed state, 
positively refused to return a verdict, in conse- 
quence of which they were dismissed, and a sec- 
ond jury summoned and impannelled, to whom, 
severally, a special messenger had been sent, re- 
questing their attendance, and each one of whom 
was directly or indirectly connected with the court, 
or the government. That, on both inquests, the 
deponent had been omitted, and had not been 
called for to give his evidence, though it must 
have been known, from his personal attendance 
and situation upon the occasion, that he must 


necessarily have been a most material witness. 
The second jury returned a verdict against Sellis, 
and his body was immediately put into a shell, and 
conveyed away a certain distance for interment. 
The duke was privately removed from St. James's 
Palace to Carlton House, where his Royal High- 
ness manifested an impatience of manner, and a 
perturbed state of mind, evidently arising from 
a conscience ill at ease. But, in a short time, he 
appeared to recover his usual spirits, and, being 
hurt but in a very trifling degree, he went out daily 
in a sedan-chair to Lord Ellenborough*s and Sir 
William Phipps's, although the daily journals were 
lamenting his very bad state of health, and also 
enlarging, with a considerable expression of sorrow, 
upon the magnitude of his wounds, and the fears 
entertained for his recovery." 

The further deposition of this attendant is of an 
important character, and claims particular consid- 
eration. He says : 

"I was applied to by some noblemen shortly 
after this dreadful business, and very strongly did 
they solicit me to make a full disclosure of all the 
improper transactions to which I might have been 
made a party upon this solemn subject. I declined 
many times, but at length conceded, under a bind- 
ing engagement that I should not be left destitute 
of comforts or abridged of my liberty ; and, under 


special engagements to preserve me from such 
results, I have given my deposition. 

(Signed) "Jew." 

The fact of two juries being summoned has been 
acknowledged by the coroner, in his affidavit before 
the Court of King's Bench in April last. The 
affidavit of this gentleman, however, contains so 
many errors, that we here introduce an exposition 
of it, as given by the talented D. Wakefield, Esq., 
in showing cause against the rule being made 
absolute in the case of " Cumberland v, Phillips." 

" Mr. Wakefield said it would be in the recoUec- 
tion of the court, that this was a rule obtained by 
Sir Charles Wetherell, for a libel contained in a 
publication relating to his Royal Highness the 
Duke of Cumberland. He would not read the 
alleged libel in detail now, but confine himself first 
to the affidavit of Samuel Thomas Adams, the 
coroner who had held the inquest on Sellis. It 
was necessary that he should read the affidavit, 
as he had to offer several remarks upon it.'* 

The learned counsel then read the affidavit, as 
follows : 

" In the King's Bench. 

" Samuel Thomas Adams of No 9 Davis street, 
Berkeley square in the County of Middlesex solic- 
itor maketh oath and saith that he hath seen a 
certain book or publication entitled * The Authen- 


tic Records of the Court of England for the last 
Seventy Years ' purporting to be published in 
London by J. Phillips 334 Strand 1832 and that 
in the said book or publication are contained the 
following statements or passages which this de- 
ponent has read that is to say — " 

[Here the deponent, lawyer-like, set out the 
whole of the pretended libel, as published in the 
"Authentic Records,** for the purpose of putting 
us to all the expense and trouble possible.] 

"And this deponent further saith that he was 
coroner for the verge of the King's Palace at St. 
James's in the month of June one thousand eight 
hundred and ten before whom the inquest on the 
body of Joseph Sellis referred to in the aforesaid 
passages extracted from the said book or publica- 
tion was held and that it is not true as stated in 
the aforesaid passages that Lord EUenborough 
undertook to manage the affair by arranging the 
proceedings upon the said inquest or that every 
witness or as this deponent believes any witness 
was previously examined by the said Lord Ellen- 
borough or that the first jury for the reasons in 
the aforesaid passages alleged or for any other 
reasons refused to return a verdict in consequence 
of which they were dismissed and a second jury 
summoned and empannelled to whom severally a 
special messenger had been sent requesting their 


attendance and each of whom was directly or in- 
directly connected with the court or the govern- 
ment And this deponent further saith that it is 
not true that any person was omitted as a witness 
whose evidence was known or could be suspected 
to be material but on the contrary this deponent 
saith that when the death of the said Joseph Sellis 
was notified to him he as such coroner as aforesaid 
was required to hold an inquest on the body of the 
said Joseph Sellis and that it being required by a 
statute passed in the twenty-third year of Henry 
the Eighth chapter twelve that in case of death 
happening in any of the king's palaces or houses 
where his majesty should then happen to be and 
in respect of which death an inquest should be 
necessary that the jury on such inquest should 
be composed of twelve or more of the yeoman 
officers of the king's household to be returned in 
the manner therein particularly mentioned he this 
deponent in the first instance issued as such cor- 
oner as aforesaid an order that a jury should be 
summoned composed of the said yeoman officers 
of the king's household pursuant to the directions 
of the said statute But this deponent saith that 
believing it to be important that the cause and 
circumstances of the death of the said Joseph 
Sellis should be investigated in the most public 
and impartial manner he took upon himself the 
responsibility of not complying with the strict 
letter of such statute as aforesaid and counter- 


manded the first order as aforesaid for summoning 
such jury in conformity to the said statute and 
instead thereof directed a jury to be summoned 
consisting of persons not being yeomen officers of 
the king's household but living at a distance from 
and totally unconnected with the palace of St. 
James's And this deponent further saith that 
thereupon his agent as this deponent has been 
informed and believes took the summoning officer 
to Francis Place of Charing Cross man's mercer 
and that the said Francis Place then mentioned to 
the agent of this deponent the names of many per- 
sons fit and eligible to compose such jury and out 
of such persons so summoned by the officer as 
aforesaid an impartial jury was formed of which 
jury the said Francis Place was foreman And this 
deponent saith that before such jury so summoned 
and duly sworn he as coroner proceeded on the 
first day of June one thousand eight hundred and 
ten to hold an inquest on the body of the said 
Joseph Sellis And this deponent further saith 
that the court which under other circumstances 
would have been a close one he this deponent 
directed to be thrown open to the public and all 
persons without distinction And this deponent 
believes the same was done and that all persons 
without distinction were admitted into such court 
amongst whom were many reporters for the news- 
papers who attended for the purpose of taking and 
did take notes of the proceedings and of the depo- 


sitions of the witnesses examined upon such inquest 
And this deponent further saith that at the com- 
mencement of the said inquest the several informa- 
tions on oath of the principal witnesses taken on 
that and the preceding day by John Reid Esquire 
the then chief magistrate of the police were read 
over and handed to the said jury to enable them 
the better to examine such witnesses respectively 
and such witnesses were respectively resworn 
before this deponent as coroner and permitted to 
make any addition to their evidence so given before 
the magistrate as aforesaid and that each and every 
of such witnesses had full opportunities of making 
any addition to such testimony which they thought 
proper And this deponent further saith that all 
the circumstances of the case as far as they could 
be collected were carefully and impartially scruti- 
nised by the said jury and that all the evidence 
which could be collected and brought forward and 
that every person was called before the said jury 
and examined as a witness and no person was 
omitted to be called and examined who would have 
been or who it could be supposed would have been 
a material witness And this deponent further 
saith that in the course of the inquiry the said jury 
proceeded to the apartment where the body of the 
said Joseph Sellis had been first discovered and 
was then lying and did then carefully view examine 
and inspect the body of the said Joseph Sellis and 
all the other circumstances deemed by them neces- 


sary to be examined into and ascertained in any 
way touching the death of the said Joseph Sellis 
And this deponent further saith that he locked the 
doors of the apartment in which the body of the 
said Joseph Sellis was found and did not permit 
the same to be inspected nor the state and position 
of the said body to be disturbed, from the first dis- 
covery of such body in the aforesaid apartment 
xmtil the same was inspected by the said jury 
And this deponent further saith that on the con- 
clusion of the investigation the said jury immedi- 
ately and unanimously returned a verdict that the 
said Joseph Sellis voluntarily and feloniously as a 
felo de se murdered himself And this deponent 
further saith that the proceedings upon the said 
inquest were in all respects regular except as to 
the jury not consisting of the yeoman officers of 
the king's household and that such proceedings 
were themselves conducted in the most fair open 
and impartial manner and that the verdict so found 
by the jury as aforesaid was a just true and honest 
verdict and that there is not" the smallest ground 
for supposing or alleging anything to the contrary 

thereof ' 

" SamK Thos. Adams. 

" Sworn in Court the eighteenth 

day of April 1832 — By the Court:' 

' Whatever our readers may think of this jumble of words, 
we assure them it is verbatim from the original affidavit, which 
b without points, as lawyers consider such matters unnecessary. 


" The first remark he had to submit to the court 
in this case was, that a person who applied for an 
extraordinary remedy by criminal information must 
deny all the charges contained in the libel. The 
rank of the illustrious individual in this case made 
no difference with respect to that point. Now the 
court would find, by the affidavit of Mr. Adams, 
the coroner, that one of the main parts of this 
alleged libel, so far from being contradicted, was 
substantiated, — he alluded to the fact of there 
having been two juries summoned to inquire into 
the circumstances relating to the death of Sellis. 
He did not mean to say that that fact formed any 
justification for the publication of the libel ; but 
the fact itself was certainly extremely important, 
and Mr. Adams's affidavit contained the reasons 
why the mode pointed out by the act of Parliament 
for summoning juries in such cases had been de- 
parted from. The fact of there having been two 
juries summoned was no doubt sufficient to induce 
any person to believe that there was some reason 
for that proceeding, which was not apparent on the 
face of it. Mr. Adams had described the manner 
in which the jury were summoned. He said he 
sent the summoning officer to Mr. Place, man's 
mercer, of Charing Cross ; but Mr. Place was not 
the coroner for the verge of the king's palace, 
and had no authority to act. He would leave it 
to the court to form their own opinion, whether 
or not this departure from the usual course was or 


was not for the purpose of obtaining an impartial 
trial. The affidavit showed that Mr. Adams had 
flown in the face of the act of Parliament, and the 
statement in the 'Authentic Records/ that there 
had been a second inquest, was corroborated by that 
affidavit. Mr. Adams had referred to the act of 
Parliament, as being that of the 23d of Henry 
VIII., whereas it was that of the 33d of Henry 
VIII. ; that was no doubt a trifling circumstance, 
but it tended to show the manner in which Mr. 
Adams performed the duties of his office. Mr. 
Adams had stated that summonses had been di*awn 
up for summoning two juries, but those for sum- 
moning the first were not used ; but the reason 
he gave was most imsatisfactory. He had no 
right to send to Mr. Place, and Mr. Place had 
no right to act as coroner ; and he (Mr. Wakefield) 
submitted that the court ought to require an affida- 
vit from Mr. Place to corroborate what Mr. Adams 
had stated. He believed it would not be difficult 
to show that the inquest might be quashed, as 
being illegal ; and it certainly might have been 
quashed if Sellis had had any goods, which would 
have been subject to an extent at the suit of the 
Crown. At all events, Mr. Adams might have 
been prosecuted for a breach of duty. There was 
another point which, though of a trifling nature, 
he would take the liberty of adverting to, in order 
to show that the inquest was illegal. By the 28 
Henry VIII. c. 12, the jury in cases of this de- 


scription were to be summoned from the verge 
of the court. Now this applied to the court sitting 
at Whitehall ; but at the time in question the court 
was sitting at St. James's. The summoning, there- 
fore, was clearly not good, and the jury, consisting 
of Mr. Place's junta, could not legally hold an 
inquest on the body of Sellis." 

Four other mistakes, also, in the coroner's affi- 
davit were pointed out by Mr. Place himself in a 
letter to the public. 

"I. Mr. Adams says 'he issued an order to 
summon a jury of persons of the king's house- 
hold, but that he rescinded the order, and sum- 
moned a jury of persons who lived at a distance, 
and were wholly imconnected with St. James's 
Palace.' Mr. Adams must by these words mean 
that he summoned a jury from the only place 
to which his power extended ; namely, ' the verge 
of the court,' — a small space, and from amongst 
the few tradesmen who resided within its limits. I 
never before heard that he had issued any order to 
summon a jury of persons of the king's household. 

" 2. Mr. Adams says that his ' summoning officer 
applied to Francis Place, of Charing Cross, for the 
names of persons who were eligible to compose 
a jury, and that out of such persons an impartial 
jury, of which Francis Place was the foreman, 
assembled on the ist of June, rSio.' Mr. Adams 
probably speaks from memory, and is, therefore. 


incorrect. He might, to be sure, have instructed 
his officer to apply to me ; but, if he did, it was 
a strange proceeding. The officer was in the 
habit of summoning juries within the verge, and 
must have known much better than I did who 
were eligible. The jurors could not have been 
indicated by me, since, of seventeen who formed 
the inquest, five were wholly unknown to me, 
either by name or person ; and amongst the seven 
who did not attend, there were probably others 
who were also unknown to me. The number of 
persons liable to be summoned is so small, that 
it has been sometimes difficult to constitute an 
inquest, and there is no room either for choice 
or selection. 

" 3. Mr. Adams says * the depositions of the wit- 
nesses were taken by John Read, the then chief 
police magistrate, and were read to the wit- 
nesses, who were severally asked if they had any- 
thing to add to them.' This, if left as Mr. Adams 
has put it, would imply negligence on the part of 
an inquest which was more than usually diligent 
and precise. The depositions were read, but not 
one of them was taken as the evidence of a wit- 
ness. Every person who appeared as a witness 
was carefully and particularly examined, and the 
order in which the evidence was taken, and the 
words used, differ from the depositions ; the evi- 
dence is also much longer than the depositions. 
Both are before me. The inquest examined seven 


material witnesses, who had not made depositions 
before Mr. Read. 

" 4. Mr. Adams says ' the jury immediately and 
unanimously returned a verdict that the deceased, 
Joseph Sellis, voluntarily and feloniously murdered 
himself.' The jury of seventeen persons were 
every one convinced that Sellis had destroyed him- 
self, yet two of them did not concur in the verdict, 
— one, because he could not believe that a sane 
man ever put an end to his own existence ; and 
another, because he could not satisfy himself 
whether or no Sellis was sane or insane. 

" Francis Place. 

" Charing Cross^ April /p, i8j2'* 

The very morning this letter was published, we 
called on Mr. Place, who repeated the substance 
of it to us, adding that Sir Charles Wetherell had 
sent a person to him for his affidavit, which he 
refused in a letter to the learned knight, condemn- 
ing the whole proceeding of criminal information. 
Mr. Place read a copy of this letter to us, and 
promised he would publish it if ever a sufficient 
reason presented itself. It was an admirable com- 
position, and did credit to the liberality of the 
writer's opinions. 

As to the affidavits of the Duke of Cumberland 
and Neale, they contain nothing but what other 
people in similar situations would say, — they deny 
all knowledge of Sellis's murder, and of unnatural 



conduct. Whoever thought of requiring them to 
criminate themselves? But affidavits from inter- 
ested persons are not worth much. The notorious 
Bishop of Clogher, for instance, exculpated himself 
in a criminal information by an affidavit, and the 
result was, the man who published the truth of 
that wretch groaned in a jail ! Sir Charles, there- 
fore, had no occasion to boast of the Duke of Cum- 
berland's charitable mode of proceeding against us 
by criminal information, instead of commencing an 
ex-officio action ; for in neither of these modes of 
procedure does the truth or falsehood of the charge 
form an object of consideration. We are, there- 
fore, prevented by the Duke of Cumberland and 
his adherents from proving the truth of the state- 
ments we made in " The Authentic Records " in a 
court of law ; but where resides the power that 
shall rob us of the glorious liberty of the press ? 
We are the strenuous advocates of the right to 
promulgate truth, — of the right to scrutinise pub- 
lic actions and public men, — of the right to expose 
vice, and castigate mischievous follies, even though 
they may be found in a palace. The free exercise 
of this invaluable privilege should always be con- 
ceded to the historian, or where will posterity look 
for impartial information ? In this character only 
did we publish what we believed, and still believe, 
to be the truth in our former work of " The Au- 
thentic Records,** and which we have considerably 
enlarged upon in our present undertaking, merely 


for the purpose of fulfilling our sacred duty, and not 
with the idea of slandering any man. If the Duke 
of Cumberland had proved our statement false, 
we would have freely acknowledged our error, as 
every man ought to do who seeks fairly and hon- 
ourably to sustain a noble function in the purity 
of its existence. We know there are writers who 
seek, not to enlighten, but to debase ; not to find 
amusement, but to administer poison ; not to im- 
part information, either political, moral, or literary, 
but to indulge in obscenity, — to rake up forgotten 
falsehoods, and disseminate imputed calumnies. 
To such, the sanctuary of private life is no longer 
inviolable ; the feelings of the domestic circle are 
no longer sacred ; retirement affords no protec- 
tion, and virtue interposes no defence, to their 
sordid inroads. Upon offences like these, we 
would invoke the fiercest penalties of the law. 
The interests of society demand it, and the rights 
of individuals claim it. But our strictures and 
exposures are of a widely different character, — 
not if they were false, — but because their truth 
must be apparent to every unbiassed individual in 
this mighty empire. With this conviction alone 
we stated them, and even Sir Charles Wetherell 
himself said we " seemed to have no other motive 
in stating them only for the purpose of stating 
them." We are not disposed to comment upon 
this part of the learned counsel's speech, as it 
proves all we want to prove regarding our motives. 

Cluuioltc ..4utii(shu Pr/ncrss of l^P\i!is 

Photo-eUiiini: from the en^raviiir^ hy H. .V\t-\t-r 

• . 


was appointed regent, and the king's person con- 
fided to the care of the queen, conjointly with 
archbishops, lords, and other adherents of her 

The session was opened on the 12th of Febru- 
ary ; and the speech, delivered by commission, in 
the name of the regent, expressed unfeigned sor- 
row at the king's malady, by which the exercise 
of the royal authority had devolved upon his 
Royal Highness. It also cong^tulated Parliament 
and the country on the success of his Majesty's 
arms, by land and. sea, and did not forget to b^ 
for further supplies, — so much required. 

Let us here inquire the cause that prevented 
the amiable regent from opening the session in 
person. Had his mistresses detained him too late 
in the morning.? or had they played a designed 
part with him, to prove their superior domination } 
or had he been in his most privately retired apart- 
ments, conversing with a few of the male favour- 
ites of his household in Italian ? If either of these 
do not give the true reason of his absence, we 
may be sure to ascertain it upon inquiry of the 
vintner or faro-table keeper. Here the different 
degrees of morality, contrived by custom and keep- 
ing the people in ignorance, are well illustrated. 

The queen was much at Windsor at this period, 
she being obliged, by etiquette, to hear the bul- 
letins issued by the physicians concerning his 
Majesty's health, or her affection for the afflicted 


king would not have produced so g^eat a sacrifice 
on her part. 

In this year the disgraced Duke of York was 
restored to his former post of commander-in-chief ; 
although, but a short period before, he was found 
guilty of being privy to, if not actually and person- 
ally, disposing of situations in the army, by which 
traffic very large amounts had been realised by 
one of his Royal Highnesses mistresses. 

The money required for this year's supply 
amounted to fifty-six millions. The distress in all 
the manufacturing districts, notwithstanding, was 
of the heaviest nature ; while, instead of ministers 
devising means to relieve the starving poor, oppres- 
sive enactments were substituted. 

Let it not here be supposed that we are con- 
demning any constitutional enactment of govern- 
ment. We only wish to see the interests of the 
poor a little more regarded, instead of laws being 
made solely with a view of aggrandising the 
wealthy, whose eyes already stand out with fat- 
ness. Is it not evident that the men at this 
period in power were resolved to continue their 
system of corrupt administration, in despite of all 
remonstrance and opposition ? A long course of 
oppression had apparently hardened them, and so 
far steeled their hearts against the petitions of the 
suffering nation, that they actually seemed to 
delight in increasing the heavy burdens which 
already preyed upon the vitals of the community. 


Private Epistles — The Accomplished Doctor Nott — A Rebel- 
lious Daughter — Unbending in Disposition — The Princess 
Makes Her Will — The Dead Recovered — Mr. Perceval In- 
tervenes — Lord Wellington in 1812 — The Queen Receives 
More Money — An Assassination — Defence of the Charac- 
ter of a Princess — Unmerited Sufferings — Sovereignty, a 
Blasting Privilege — One Hundred Thousand Pounds for 
Legal Slaughter — The Slave of a Haughty Prince — At- 
tempted Divorce. 

[UR readers may probably be aware that 
the visits of the Princess Charlotte to 
her mother were always "few and far 
between;" but at this period the interviews be- 
came so uncertain and restricted, that they could 
not be satisfactory either to the mother or the 
daughter. Some of the attendants always re- 
mained in the apartment with them, by the regent's 
command, to witness the conversation. For some 
time the princess contrived to write privately to 
her mother, and obtained a confidential messenger 
to deliver her communications. This was ulti- 
mately suspected, and, after a close scrutiny, un- 
fortunately discovered, and immediately forbidden. 
Her Royal Highness was now in her fifteenth 

year, in good health, and possessing much natural 



and mental activity. It was not very probable, 
therefore, that the society of formal ladies, every 
way disproportionate to herself in years and taste, 
could be very agreeable to her, more especially 
when she knew that these very ladies were bitter 
enemies to her adored mother. If the Princess 
Charlotte had been allowed to associate with nat- 
ural and suitable companions, the very decisive 
feature of her character- would have rendered her 
the brightest ornament of society; but this was 
not permitted, and England has great cause to 
mourn that she was not more valued by her father 
and grandmother. 

The elegant and accomplished Doctor Nott was 
now selected for the Princess Charlotte's precep- 
tor, and he ardently exerted himself to improve the 
mind of his royal pupil. The very superior per- 
sonal, as well as mental, qualifications of the 
reverend gentleman, however, soon rendered him 
an object of peculiar interest to the youthful prin- 
cess. The ardency of her affections and the 
determinate character of her mind were well 
known to her royal relatives. They, therefore, 
viewed this new connection with considerable un- 
easiness, and soon had occasion to suspect that 
her Royal Highness had manifested too much 
solicitude for the interest of her friend and tutor. 

The Duke of York first communicated his sus- 
picions on this subject to the regent, and the 
prince immediately went to Windsor (where the 


queen then was) to inform her Majesty of his 
fears, and to consult what would be the most 
proper and effectual measures to take. Her 
Majesty was highly incensed at the information, 
and very indignantly answered : " My family con- 
nections will prove my entire ruin." Her Majesty, 
accompanied by the prince, drove off directly for 
London, and the Princess Charlotte was com- 
manded to meet her grandmother in her chamber. 
With her usual independent readiness, the prin- 
cess obeyed the summons, and was ushered into 
the presence of the haughty queen. 

After some considerable period of silence, her 
Majesty began to ask what particular services 
Doctor Nott had rendered, or what very superior 
attractions he possessed, to engage the attentions 
of her Royal Highness in such an unusual degree, 
as was now well known to be the case. Her 
Royal Highness rose up, and, in a tone of voice 
not very agreeable to the queen, said: "If your 
Majesty supposes you can subdue me as you have 
done my mother, the Princess of Wales, you will 
find yourself deceived. The Reverend Mr. Nott 
has shown me more attentions, and contributed 
more to my happiness in my gloomy seclusion, 
than any person ever did, except my mother, and 
I ought to be gfrateful to him, and I will, whether 
it pleases your Majesty or not ! " The queen 
saw her purpose was defeated in the attempt to 
intimidate her granddaughter, and therefore, in a 


milder manner, said : " You must, my dear, recol- 
lect, I am anxious for your honour and happiness ; 
you are bom to occupy the highest station in the 
world, and I wish you to do so becoming the proud 
character of your royal father, who is the most 
distinguished prince in Europe." The queen had 
scarcely concluded her sentence, when her Royal 
Highness burst forth, in the most violent manner, 
and, with an undismayed gesture, said : " Does your 
Majesty think I am always to be under your sub- 
jection ? Can I believe my royal father so great 
and good, when I have so long witnessed his un- 
remitted unkindness to my neglected mother? 
Neither do I receive much attention from the 
prince ; and my uncle of York is always preach- 
ing to me about virtue and submission, and your 
Majesty well knows he does not practise either. 
Mr. Nott practises every amiability which he en- 
joins, and I esteem him exceedingly more than I 
do any other gentleman." The queen was quite 
vexed at the unbending disposition manifested by 
the princess, and desired her to retire and reflect 
upon the improper conduct of which she had been 
guilty, and, by humility and contrition, to make 
a suitable atonement. 

While walking out of the room, the princess 
appeared in deep thought, and more tranquil ; her 
Majesty, imagining it to be the result of her own 
advice, said, "The Princess Charlotte will never 
want a friend if she abide by her grandmother's 


instructions and properly maintain her dignity of 
birth.'* Her Royal Highness returned to her 
former situation before the queen, and exclaimed, 
"What does your Majesty mean?" "I mean," 
replied the queen, " that you must not condescend 
to favour persons in low life with your confidence 
or particular respect ; they will take advantage of 
it, and finally make you the tool to accomplish 
their vile purposes." " Does your Majesty apply 
these remarks to the Reverend Mr. Nott ? " hastily 
replied the princess. "I do," said the queen. 
" Then hear me, your Majesty ; I glory in my 
regard for Mr. Nott. His virtues are above all 
praise, and he merits infinitely more than I have 
to give ; but I resolve, from this moment, to give 
him all the worldly goods I can ; and your Majesty 
knows that, by law, I can make a will, though I am 
but little more than fifteen ; and my library, jewels, 
and other valuables are at my own disposal. I 
will now, without delay, make my will in his fa- 
vour, and no earthly power shall prevent me. I 
am sorry your Majesty prefers vicious and wicked 
characters, with splendid titles, to virtuous and 
amiable persons, destitute of such empty sounds." 
The princess left the room, and the queen was 
more disturbed than before the interview. 

The regent was soon made acquainted with the 
result, and recommended that no further notice 
should be taken of the matter, hoping that the 
princess would change her intention upon a more 


deliberate survey of the subject. But in this opin- 
ion, or hope, his Royal Highness was disappointed ; 
for the princess that day signed a deed, whereby 
she gave positively to her friend and preceptor. 
Doctor Nott, her library, jewels, and all private 
property belonging to her, and delivered this in- 
strument into his hand, saying, " I hope you will 
receive this small token as a pledge of my sincere 
regard for your character and high estimation of 
your many virtues. When I am able to give you 
greater testimonies of my friendship, they shall 
not be withheld." We need hardly say that the 
divine was delighted at the great attention and un- 
expected generosity of her Royal Highness. He 
was more ; for his heart was subdued and affected. 

A considerable period elapsed after this circum- 
stance, when the queen was resolved to recover 
the deed at all hazards, as she feared, if the valid- 
ity of such an instrument were ever acknowledged, 
royalty would suffer much in the estimation of the 
public. All the queen's deceptive plans, therefore, 
were tried ; but failed. The prince, at length, 
offered a large amount as a remuneration, and 
finally persuaded the doctor to give up the deed. 
Of course a good living was also presented to him, 
on his retiring from the situation in which he had 
so long enjoyed the smile and favour of his royal 

The Princess Charlotte was mortified, beyond 
expression, at this unexpected conduct on the part 


of her father and g^ndmother, and was not very 
sparing in her expressions of dislike toward them. 
Mr. Perceval (who was then premier) was re- 
quested by the prince to see her Royal Highness, 
and to suggest any terms of reconciliation between 
the princess and the queen ; but he could not suc- 
ceed. "What, sir!" said her Royal Highness, 
" would you desire me to appear what I am not, 
and to meet her Majesty as if I believed her to 
be my sincere friend, when I know I am hated for 
my dear mother's sake? No, sir! I cannot do 
as you desire ; but I will endeavour to meet her 
Majesty at all needful opportunities with as much 
gentleness of manners as I can assume. What 
indignities has not the queen offered to my perse- 
cuted mother? You well know, sir, they have 
been unmerited, and if her Majesty insults the 
Princess of Wales again in my presence, I shall 
say, *Your Majesty should regulate your family 
affairs better, and teach lessons of virtue to your 
daughters, before you traduce the characters of 
other ladies.' You, sir, are the regent's minister, 
and in his confidence, so I may venture to give 
you my candid opinion, and I do not consider that, 
by doing so, I exceed the bounds of propriety. 
Will you, therefore, oblige me by announcing to 
the prince, my father, that I am imalterably de- 
voted in heart to my mother, and while I wish to 
be a dutiful child to my father, I must not even 
be that at the expense of principle and honour- 


able sentiments. My grandfather always had my 
respect and pity." 

It is scarcely necessary to say that Mr. Perce- 
val retired with evident symptoms of disappoint- 
ment and chagrin. He immediately communicated 
the result of his interview to the regent and the 
queen, who declined making any further remon- 
strance, lest the princess should imagine they 
feared her, or were at all intimidated by her bold 

In this year, Lord Sidmouth moved to bring in 
a bill to alter the " Toleration Act." His lordship 
stated that this bill was calculated to serve the 
interests of religion, and promote the prosperity of 
the Church of England. But Lord Sidmouth, for 
once, was disappointed. The sensation excited 
throughout the country was of an unprecedented 
description ; for, within forty-eight hours, no less 
than 336 petitions against it were poured into the 
House of Lords, and the House was presented, 
on the second reading, with five hundred more. 
It was consequently abandoned. 

The supplies voted for the public and private 
services were fifty-six millions. 

At the close of this year, the poor were perish- 
ing for want ; yet the court became more splendid 
than ever. The ill-fated sovereign was as imbecile 
and as weak as an infant, and his representative a 
profligate ruler. What a condition for England ! 

War §till raged at the commencement of 18 12. 


We will not, however, record the scenes of devas- 
tation and horror consequent from it ; neither will 
we eulogise Lord Wellington for the victories he 
obtained. Much rather would we shed a tear at 
the remembrance of the slaughtered victims to 
kingly or ministerial ambition. Who that believes 
in the immortality of the soul can think of these 
horrid engagements without shuddering at the im- 
mense and inexpressible accountability of the des- 
troyer } It would be utterly impossible to give an 
idea of the number of widows and orphans who 
have had to mourn the consequences of splendid 
victories, as a wholesale murdering of soldiers is 
denominated. How many ducal coronets have 
been purchased at the expense of human exist- 
ence! Rather should our brows never be en- 
circled than at such an unnatural price. 

On the 13th of February the restrictions for- 
merly in force against the prince regent termi- 
nated ; and, properly speaking, it may be declared 
he then assumed the kingly power. One hundred 
thousand pounds were voted for him, professedly 
to meet the expenses attendant upon his assump- 
tion of the regal authority. 

This was a moment of triumph to the queen, and 
the sequel will prove that her Majesty took especial 
care to turn it to her own account. The Duke of 
York was fully reinstated as " commander-in-chief," 
and, therefore, ready ways and means presented 
themselves to her Majesty. The regent engaged 


that the queen should have the continued sanction 
of his name and interest, in all the various ways 
she might require. Accordingly, it was soon ar- 
ranged that her Majesty should receive an addi- 
tional sum of ten thousand pounds per annum for 
the care of her royal husband's person. 

We cannot pass by this shameful insult to the 
nation without making an observation upon so 
unnatural an act. If the queen were the kind and 
affectionate wife she had so very frequently been 
represented to be, could she have allowed herself 
to receive an immense payment for merely doing 
her duty ? But a more selfish woman, and a more 
unfeeling wife, never disgraced humanity, as this 
wicked acceptance of the public money fully tes- 

An additional nine thousand pounds annually 
was also granted to each of the princesses, whilst 
places and pensions were proportionally multiplied. 
In the case of Colonel M'Mahon, upon whom a 
private secretaryship had been conferred, much 
very unpleasant altercation took place in the House 
of Commons ; but bribery effected that which argu- 
ment proved to be wrong. It was a well-known 
fact, indeed, that this individual was nothing more 
than a pander to the regent's lust, to which infa- 
mous engagements and practices we shall hereafter 

On the nth of May, as Mr. Perceval was enter- 
ing the lobby of the House of Commons, he re- 


ceived a shot in his left breast, and, after staggering 
a few paces, fell down and expired. The assassin 
was tried on the 15th and executed on the i8th of 
the same month. He defended his conduct on the 
ground of having received much injury from the 
government, who had denied redress of his griev- 
ances, and, therefore, thought he had only done an 
act of justice in taking away the life of a member 
of so callous an administration. 

Agreeably to the regent's message, fifty thousand 
pounds were voted for the use of Mr. Perceval's 
family, and two thousand annually to be paid to his 
widow. In case of her demise, however, the same 
amount was to be continued annually to such male 
descendant as might at that time be the heir, for 
the term of his life. 

Let us here inquire into the services which Mr. 
Perceval had rendered his country to warrant min- 
isters in this lavish expenditure upon his family, one 
of whom now frequently intrudes his crude notions 
in the House of Commons. Mr. Perceval had been 
for a long period the pretended friend of the ill- 
fated Princess of Wales. " The Book " which he 
arranged, and which had been printed, but not 
published, in 1807, giving the particulars of the 
" Delicate Investigation," improperly so called, was 
bought up in 1809, and as much as fifteen hun- 
dred pounds given for a single copy. The rancour 
and malice of the unprincipled enemies and calum- 
niators of the open-hearted Princess of Wales had 



been much exposed by Mr. Perceval, and by his 
apparent generous and manly defence m her Royal 
Highness's favour, the storm materially abated. 
After a long period, she was again received at 
court, and acknowledged innocent of the charges 
preferred by her assailants. Apartments were 
given to her at Kensington Palace, and it appeared 
very probable that her wishes would finally be 
completed, in the restoration of her beloved daugh- 
ter to her society. But mark the ensuing change. 
Mr. Perceval was chosen by the regent to assist in 
his councils ; and as no man can serve two causes 
at the same time, Mr. Perceval deserted the prin- 
cess, and became the servile minister of the prince. 
Surely there must be something supernatural in 
the smile of royalty, when, in some instances, prin- 
ciple and conscience have fallen subdued before it. 
We know for an incontrovertible fact that, but a 
few months before Mr. Perceval's acceptance of 
office, he delivered his sentiments concerning the 
Princess of Wales to a particular friend, in these 
words : " I am decidedly friendly to the Princess of 
Wales, because I am well satisfied and assured her 
Royal Highness is a much injured lady. I am also 
convinced her mother-in-law had conceived an in- 
veterate dislike to her before she arrived in this 
country, on account of the objections preferred by 
the prince against any connection, except that which 
his Royal Highness had already formed. From 
these unhappy circumstances, I am obliged to be- 


lieve that the sufferings of her Highness are un- 
merited on her part, and very much increased by the 
dictatorial behaviour of her Majesty." At another 
interview with the same person, the following ques- 
tion was put, unreservedly, to Mr. Perceval : " Do 
you, sir, think her Royal Highness has been deserv- 
ing of the persecutions she has endured, by any 
deviation from virtue and propriety } " " I do not 
think the princess guilty," earnestly rejoined Mr. 
Perceval, "and I am fully satisfied, in my own 
mind, that if there had not existed ungenerous in- 
tentions on the part of the royal family, the aflfair 
would long since have sunk into silence. There is 
gaiety and levity about her Royal Highness which 
is not usual with the English ladies generally ; but, 
with all the exterior frivolity of the princess, when 
she chooses to be lively, I would prefer her infi- 
nitely to the professedly-modest and apparently-re- 
served of the sex in high life. I believe the princess 
to be playful, and incautiously witty, in her deport- 
ment ; but I prefer that to secret intrigue and 
infamous practices." 

We leave our readers to judge whether this 
simple declaration was not honourable to the prin- 
cess, and whether it does not correspond with 
every speech delivered by this gentleman in his 
public and private defence of her Royal Highness. 
Humanity, however, is weak, and the ingratiating 
attentions of the prince were too powerful to be 
resisted by Mr. Perceval At his royal command, 


virtue, goodness, and truth assumed the garb of 
vice, infamy, and falsehood. "Oh, blasting privi- 
lege of sovereignty ! The bare scent of thy per- 
fume spreads desolation to society ; changes man, 
the noblest of God's works, into a monster ; and 
the consequences of thy unnatural existence will 
most probably produce the engine to be used for 
thine own destruction ! " 

Shortly after the untimely death of Mr. Perce- 
val, Lord Liverpool was appointed first lord of the 
treasury; Mr. Nicholas Vansittart, chancellor of 
the exchequer; and Lord Sidmouth, secretary of 
state for the home department. 

On the 17th of June Mr. Vansittart brought 
forward his budget, — the amount of the sup- 
plies required being more than sixty-two millions. 
Certainly this was not a very exhilarating or agree- 
able prospect to the nation of the retrenchments 
intended by the new ministry ; but notwithstand- 
ing the divisions on the subject, it finally received 
the sanction of Parliament. Had it not been for 
the corrupt state of the representation, can we 
suppose it possible that such a sum would have 
been permitted to be drawn from the starving 
multitudes, when there existed such pecuniary 
distress in the manufacturing and commercial 
districts, unequalled in former years ? 

The new Parliament met for business on the 
30th of November, and one of its first acts was to 
grant the sum of one hundred thousand pounds 


to Lord Wellington for the part he had taken in 
legal slaughter. 

It may, with propriety, be submitted here, how 
large a grant would have been made to any man 
who should have presented a plan for the comfort- 
able and honourable maintenance of the perishing 
millions ? We fear any patriot who had dared to 
press such a scheme would have soon been con- 
signed to a damp and dreary dungeon, charged 
with disaffection to the monarch, or commanded, 
under certain protection, to set sail for another 
country ; and, if permitted to reach the destined 
shore, there to be received and treated as one 
of the most infamous of the human race. But 
in these days, the will of the regent, supported by 
the queen, was supreme law. There was not one 
who ventured to insult his dignity by speaking to 
him truth, — not one dared to stem the torrent of 
his royal displeasure. It is true that, when Lord 
Liverpool first entered office, he once hinted to 
his royal master the general voice of dissatisfac- 
tion which the people expressed ; but the imperi- 
ous regent commanded silence upon all such sub- 
jects, and desired Lord Liverpool never again to 
meet his Highness, unless under a positive resolve 
not even to give the most distant hint at matters 
so very disagreeable to the royal ear, and which 
were of no considerable importance. His lordship 
proved himself wanting in fortitude to set an exam- 
ple to courtiers, and the principle of his mind was. 



consequently, bartered for the pleasure of being 
the slave of a haughty prince, who had "relin- 
quished justice, and abandoned mercy ! '' 

We must here refer to a most interesting cir- 
cumstance with respect to the Princess of Wales. 
Her Royal Highness was well aware of the bonds, 
still in existence, given by the Princes George, 
Frederick, and William, to the firm of Perigoux and 
Co., of Paris, which were to the amount of several 
himdred thousand pounds, as we have before 
named ; and, in an open and friendly conversation 
with Messrs. Whitbread and Perceval, the princess 
said : " The regent and the royal dukes engaged in 
those bonds are perfectly aware they deserve se- 
vere exposure. Their action was not only wicked, 
but their intention also, as every person in any 
way acquainted with their concerns must be sure 
they undertook to pay more than their means 
would ever permit, seeing how deeply the country 
was in debt, and that the revenue did not then 
meet the annual amount required. And," emphati- 
cally added the princess, " if the world did but 
know of the lives sacrificed in this affair, to 
preserve the good reputation of these princely 
brothers, I suppose royalty would not gain much 
in the estimation of good people by the exposure." 

The substance of this conversation soon after- 
ward transpired to the Prince of Wales. There 
cannot be a doubt that his Royal Highness was 
afraid, but he resolved not to appear so ; and from 


that period, he and the queen were the unalter- 
able and bitterest enemies of the princess, both 
publicly and privately. So, then, for the simple 
expression of truth, to those who were already in 
possession of the whole affair, was an injured prin- 
cess to be pursued by the hounds of destruction 
until her capture should be accomplished. The 
prince sought an immediate divorce ; but as the 
former attempts on this ground, in the year 1806, 
had failed, there appeared great difficulty in the 
attainment of his object. The former charges and 
gross calumnies were declared false, and Lady 
Douglas had been shunned by all good and strictly 
honourable society ; for, except where she was re- 
ceived in compliment to the queen, her invitations 
were, indeed, but very few. The old story was 
again resorted to, and as Mr. Perceval was now no 
more, a bold attempt was resolved on, as the last 
resource, to obtain the desired end. 


An Interriew with the Queen — An Argumentative Scene — 
Caroline Is Insulted — The Royal Duke Speaks — An Op- 
posite Effect to That Intended — A Determined Rejoinder — 
Resentful Disposition of the Queen — A Letter to the Prince 
— Wifely Rebellion — Base Innuendos — Mr. C. Johnstone's 
Motion — The « Suborned Traducers "— Death of the Duch- 
ess of Brunswick — A Letter from the Princess — Insult 
Added to Injury — The Visit of Mr. Pitt — Important Papers 
— An Outrage against Honour — A Notorious Secretary. 

J 'vy.* V: 

;R. WHITBREAD communicated to 
the Princess of Wales the scheme then 
forming against her honour, and that 
the ministry were favourable to the wishes of the 
regent. Her Royal Highness stood amazed at this 
unexpected information. ** What ! " said the prin- 
cess, "is not the Prince of Wales satisfied with 
the former abuses he has heaped upon me ? Is he 
so abandoned, being heir-apparent, as to risk his 
life, or engage the vengeful disposition of the 
nation, in the punishment due to the crimes he 
has committed against me ? If the generous Eng- 
lish people were informed of half the sufferings 
I have endured since my arrival in this country, 
they would never be induced to )deld obedience 

to the commands of a prince whose virtues are not 



the least balance to his vices. But/' continued 
her Royal Highness, " I will go down to Windsor, 
and request an interview with the queen." Mr. 
Whitbread remonstrated, and at last the princess 
consented to write, and ask an audience. A cour- 
ier was despatched with it, and the verbal reply 
of her Majesty was, " She would see the Princess 
of Wales, provided her Royal Highness was at 
Windsor Castle by eight o'clock in the evening." 

Not a moment was to be lost ; the carriage was 
announced in a few minutes, and the princess, 
attended by only one lady, entered it. "Drive 
quickly," said her Royal Highness. It was only 
half-past seven when the princess was announced. 
Her Royal Highness was received in courtly style 
and unbending manner by her Majesty, who, in her 
usual way, inquired "the cause which gives me 
the pleasure of a visit, so very imexpectedly, from 
the Princess of Wales } " 

" Madam," answered her Royal Highness, " I am 
quite sensible of your surprise at my hasty request 
and appearance ; but as I am tired of hearing the 
false reports in such general circulation in the 
court, I am resolved to ask your Majesty in person, 
if I am likely to experience any renewal of those 
bitter persecutions which, in former years, were 
agitated to my horror and surprise. I am well 
aware the regent would not enter upon such a 
business unless he had your Majesty's sanction 
and countenance, as well as assistance. Is it be- 


cause Mr. Perceval is dead, that your Majesty 
thinks me so unprotected as to fall immediately a 
prey to my base enemies ? If so, your Majesty 
will be in the wrong ; for, although Mr. Perceval 
forsook my interest when he engaged himself in 
confidence to the regent, my husband, I never 
shall forget the gratitude I owe him for former 
benefits, and his letters speak volumes of truths, 
which it was entirely impossible for him to name 
or attest, unless his mind had been duly influenced 
by the solid foundation upon which his opinion 
was fixed." 

Her Majesty appeared vexed and astonished; 
then, assuming that hauteur for which she was so 
remarkable, said : '* I do not know, princess, that I 
am under any necessity to answer your question, 
as it seems to me improper to do so. The prince 
regent has an unquestionable right to choose his 
ministers and counsellors, and also to engage their 
attentions and services for any purpose his Royal 
Highness may please, (?) and therefore I decline to 
answer any interrogatory upon the subject. Your 
Royal Highness must be aware this interview and 
conversation is very unpleasant to me, and I hope, 
in future, you will not put me to the very disagree- 
able task of refusing you an audience, or of permit- 
ting one, under similar circumstances. I must, 
therefore, desire your Royal Highness will take 
some refreshment in the adjoining room, and I wish 
you a very good evening." 


It hardly need be told that the insulted Caroline 
did not stay to partake of the proffered hospitality 
of this German princess. To be injured by the 
son, and insulted by the mother, was as much as 
human feeling could endure, and the princess 
reached her home in a state of mind little short 
of distraction. On the following morning one of 
the royal dukes called upon the princess, and told 
her he was informed of her journey to Windsor 
by an express from his mother, and also stated his 
opinion that no measures of an unpleasant nature 
were in agitation. The princess hastily answered : 
" Do you think I was not fully satisfied of the 
regent's intention upon the subject before I re- 
solved to visit the queen.? You forget, prince, 
that I am an injured lady. You know I was 
brought into this country to afford money to pay 
my intended husband's enormous debts, and to 
give him means to live in the greatest splendour 
with his numerous mistresses. I am deprived of 
the society of my only child. Injurious reports 
are circulated and received against my honour, and 
I am not even permitted to exonerate myself from 
these vile and slanderous imputations, because I 
am injured by the reigning authority." 

The royal duke said : " I beg, my dear cousiu, 
you will not permit the harsh and unfeeling con- 
duct of the queen to operate on your mind. We 
all know she is revengeful in the extreme, but she 
always favours George in everything; and, from 


her very bitter conduct to you, we are well assured 
George is meditating some new scheme against you. 
One thing I promise you : I will abide by you, even 
presuming anything disreputable is proved ; and I 
only beg you will give me your private confidence, 
that I may be prepared for the worst." 

Her Royal Highness, hastily rising, said : ** Sir, 
if you intended to insult me, I feel it such ; but 
if, from unguarded or not well-considered lan- 
guage, you have so very improperly expressed 
yourself, then I am not captious to place any un- 
generous meaning upon your words. If my recti- 
tude did not rise higher in the scale of truth and 
uprightness than that of your family, including 
both sexes, I should not have ventured the close 
and determinate inspection into my conduct at the 
will or command of my avowed foes. If it were 
not for my child's sake, I would satisfy you all 
that I am privy to transactions which one day or 
another will be punished with the vengeance of 
Heaven, and which I solemnly believe to be my 
duty to explain, though it may even cause *the 
cloud-capp'd towers and gorgeous palaces ' to fall 
into one general heap of ruins." 

The duke was almost petrified with the lan- 
guage and manner of the princess, and strongly 
urged the necessity of silence upon any and all of 
the unfortunate or dishonourable transactions in 
which the family had been engaged, observing, 
** Your own welfare depends upon theirs, and that 


is a consideration of positive importance, which I 
hope your Royal Highness will justly appreciate." 
This suggestion of the cowardly duke produced 
the opposite effect to that which was intended; 
the princess declared that the mean sentiments 
of the queen had also found way into the minds 
of her sons, and instead of proving their royal 
descent by greatness of mind and action, they con- 
descended to suggest self-preservation and self- 
enjoyments in preference to an open avowal of 
truth, and an honourable meeting with an enemy. 
"And," hastily said her Royal Highness, "is this, 
sir, a specimen of the character of the English royal 
family } What would my ever dear and lamented 
father have thought of such principles and opin- 
ions ? Doubtless, he would rather have followed 
his daughter to the tomb, and have seen her re- 
mains deposited with his ancestors, than have had 
her associated with persons who could sacrifice 
honour for mean and paltry conveniences. Your 
Royal Highness must be well assured that I am 
not a stranger to the unfounded and most abomi- 
nable assertions or suggestions issued against my 
child's legitimacy ; certainly, if I am only the 
Princess of Wales nominally, then my daughter 
bears a surreptitious title, and if either of us is 
considered as an obstacle to the interests of the 
nation, why are not the assertions upon that point 
made in an honourable and open manner } You 
well know, sir, that I would sacrifice anything and 


everything for the happiness and future prosperity 
of my child ; but I must be fully convinced that 
my destruction of rights or enjoyments of privi- 
leges would not produce the entire annihilation of 
hers also. I must be made to understand that 
the mother and child have separate interests, and 
that insults received by one are not dishonourable 
to the other. I have also another powerful objec- 
tion to keep silence upon these heartrending and 
distracting subjects, which is Charlotte's deep- 
rooted aversion to those persons who have insulted 
me most. This feeling assures my mind that I 
ought not to shrink from any avowal of truth 
which I may in justice to this generous nation be 
called upon to make, and nothing less than my 
child's safety shall keep me from making a dis- 
closure of the unmerited and most incomparable 
wicked conduct manifested toward me. If I find 
that likely to operate against my daughter's hap- 
piness, I will forbear; but not upon any other 

The determined manner of her Royal Highness 
fully satisfied the abashed duke that the senti- 
ments thus boldly expressed were the unalterable 
principles entertained by the princess, and would 
only gather energy and force by opposition and 
remonstrance ; he therefore very soon afterward 
took his leave, and gave the outline of the conver- 
sation to his august mother, by whose express 
wish the interview had taken place. 


The queen was posed by the firmness her Royal 
Highness had displayed ; and, in reply to the com- 
munication, said : " I will not be disappointed by 
this seeming boldness ; the princess shall feel my 
power. She shall see Charlotte still less; the 
restrictions shall be enforced with greater severity, 
and she shall repent of her stupidity. Does the 
Princess of Wales imagine that I am to submit to 
her opinions upon my conduct, or to her abuse of 
any of my family.^ My only fear is that the 
daughter will prove as unbending and as deter- 
minately resolute as the mother is, and I am 
therefore resolved to separate them as much as 

The result proved the queen's indignation and 
resentful disposition ; as, immediately, a council 
was held upon the subject, and her Majesty was 
positive in her instructions, that the restrictions 
between the Princess of Wales and her daughter 
should be more rigidly enforced. 

At the commencement of the year 181 3, the 
princess found her situation more irksome than 
ever; and she resolved, therefore, to inform the 
prince regent of the hardships of her case, 
soliciting his Royal Highness to inform him- 
self of all or any part of her behaviour or 
demeanour, to which the queen had made such 
heavy objections. The following is an exact 
copy of the letter of her Royal Highness to 
the prince : 


"27th Jan., 181 3. 

" Sir : — On the 14th of this month I transmitted 
to the hand of your Royal Highness a letter rela- 
tive to the cruelty and injustice of my situation, in 
reference to my beloved child's separation from 
me, the most heartrending point upon which you 
could so severely afflict me. Why does your 
Royal Highness refuse to answer my simple but 
honest and honourable inquiry ? What have I not 
endured since the moment I became your princess 
and wife ? Heaven only knows, and Heaven only 
ean avenge my wrongs. It is now more than 
seventeen years since I gave birth to your lovely 
daughter. Princess Charlotte of Wales, at which 
time I did most certainly hope, and also believe, 
that her royal father's affectionate recollections of 
her mother would not only revive, but be exem- 
plified. Yet to this time, your Royal Highness 
has not evinced one spark of regard to the consort 
you vowed * to love and cherish.' 

"More than this, my lord and husband, you 
permit her Majesty to usurp such extreme author- 
ity over me, and insult me in every possible way. 
Why, my lord, I ask, do you allow these indig- 
nities to be imposed upon your cousin and wife (so 
called), the mother of the heiress to the throne of 
these united kingdoms.^ If I had deserved such 
treatment, I should most naturally have avoided 
all scrutiny ; but that I have endeavoured to obtain 
all possible investigation into my conduct, I need 


only refer to my several correspondencies with 
your august father, your brother of York, Privy 
Council, etc. 

" I cannot conclude without saying, if you refuse 
me justice, I will leave indisputable proofs to this 
insulted nation that its generosity has been abused, 
though, at the same time, I would save you your- 
self from ignominy at the hazard of my liberty. 
To the queen, I never will bow. Her Majesty 
was, is, and ever will be, a tyrant to those she 
may imagine obstacles in her path. Perhaps her 
Majesty presumes I am not an object of mate- 
rial consequence ; but time will develop all these 
things. If this letter meet not with your royal 
approbation, I can only regret it, and waiting your 
reply, I am, ever, 

" Your faithful and devoted 

" Caroline. 

" P.S. I entreat your Royal Highness to inform 
yourself of every part of my conduct which may 
at any time have been esteemed derogatory ; and, 
while I beg this favour, I trust your Royal High- 
ness will never again submit to the unprincipled, 
slanderous, and abominable aspersions cast upon 
my character. Let me suggest, my lord, that 
truth must prevail, sooner or later. / After the 
most deliberate, careful, and scrutinising investi- 
gations, I only beg to be punished with the most 
extreme rigour, if I am found guilty ; but, if free 


from guilt, I ought to say I have an indisputable 
right to be acknowledged so. 

" To his Royal Highness^ the Prince Regent^ 

This letter was not noticed when the commis- 
sioners sat on the 23d of February ; and Lord 
Liverpool never mentioned it when communicating 
with the princess, or when he had the private 
interview with her Royal Highness, by the 
regent's request. 

We should not act with justice or honour if we 
neglected to state this omission ; because the let- 
ter reflected much credit upon the princess, and 
ought to have been the first read when the council 
assembled. The result of this new inquiry, how- 
ever, was what the vindictive queen intended it 
should be; for the almost distracted Princess of 
Wales was refused the natural privilege of inter- 
course with her only daughter. 

In the meantime, every opportunity was gladly 
embraced to detract the character of the princess. 
Base innuendos and malicious remarks were inces- 
santly poured forth against her, until her life 
became one continued scene of sorrow and abuse, 
caused by those from whom she ought to have 
experienced protection. Under these imputa- 
tions, the princess again appealed, by an address 
to the Speaker of the House of Commons ; 
and, after many inquiries and replies, the sub- 
ject was dismissed with an acknowledgment that 



"her Royal Highness is declared free from all 

We must not here forget to mention that Mr. 
C. Johnstone submitted a motion, on the sth of 
March, "to request the prince regent will permit 
the copy of a certain report, made in 1806, to be 
laid before the House ; " but Lord Castlereagh 
opposed it, as being unnecessary, and the docu- 
ment was consequently refused. 

Notwithstanding the disgust manifested by every 
honest Englishman at the base conduct of Sir 
John and Lady Douglas, when they preferred their 
abominable charge against the character of the 
Princess of Wales in the year 1806, they had 
the hardihood to present a petition to the House 
this year to reswear to the truth of their former 
depositions concerning the conduct of the Princess 
of Wales. No proceedings, of course, took place, 
in consequence of this attempt still to propagate 
their calumnies ; but a motion was made by Mr. 
C. Johnstone, a few days afterward in the House 
of Commons, " That the petition of Sir John and 
Lady Douglas ought to be regarded as an auda- 
cious attempt to give a colour of truth, in the eyes 
of the nation, to evidence which they had delivered 
touching the conduct of her Royal Highness, the 
Princess of Wales, and which evidence was a foul 
and detestable endeavour to bring the life and 
honour of her Royal Highness into danger and 
suspicion." This resolution, however, could not 


be passed, in consequence of the House not being 
in possession of the evidence, which was refused, 
as we have just stated, by Lord Castlereagh ; but 
many members expressed their agreement with the 
sentiments of the resolution. 

What was the real reason for not prosecuting 
Sir John and Lady Douglas, after the House had 
rejected their petition with such indignation, on 
the motion of Mr. Johnstone, it is not very easy 
to divine; that alleged by Lord Castlereagh is 
most certainly not a satisfactory one. It has been 
often insinuated, that if the conspiracy against 
the life and honour of the Princess of Wales 
did not originate with her royal relatives, it was 
certainly fostered and brought to maturity by per- 
sons connected with the queen and the prince 
regent ; and the evidence of Bidgood and Cole 
very much favours that opinion. If the Douglases, 
and Bidgood and Cole, were the "suborned tra- 
ducers,*' to which her Royal Highness alluded in 
one of her letters to the prince about this time, the 
impunity with which the knight and his lady were 
suffered to continue at large cannot excite surprise. 
This impunity, the report that Bidgood had received 
a pension of one hundred and fifty pounds a year, 
and the direct interference of the Prince of Wales 
in promoting the inquiry, and in entering his caveat 
to prevent the princess being received at court, have 
thrown a suspicious veil around this part of the 
proceedings, which will not be very soon removed. 


On the 23d of March, the Princess of Wales 
had to bear another severe stroke of fortune, in 
the death of her mother, the Duchess of Bruns- 
wick, who was interred with much funeral pomp, 
at Windsor, on the 31st. This melancholy event, 
following so closely after her late persecutions, 
was as much as the princess could endure; and, 
had it not been for the sympathetic attentions of 
one confidant, her Royal Highness would, no 
doubt, have sunk under her immense load of 

In July and August, the princess devoted the 
greater portion of her time to correspondence 
with the prince, her husband. Very many of the 
letters could not, we think, have met the eye of 
the regent, or answers must have been sent, if 
only in common courtesy, as the prince knew his 
honour, and also that of his family, were at stake. 
We have transcripts of all these letters ; but shall 
content ourselves with only introducing the last 
she wrote to his Royal Highness previous to her 
going abroad. The following is a literal copy 
of it: 

" 23d of Aug., 181 3. 

" Sir : — I have waited, with most anxious feel- 
ings, to receive an acknowledgment of the safe 
receipt of several important communications which 
I addressed to you as 'private and confidential.' 
To this hour I have not received a reply, and I 
therefore take up my pen for the last time upon 


this most disagreeable business. To you it is well 
known that the good king, your father, has invari- 
ably treated me with the most profound respect 
and proper attention ; and his Majesty would have 
done me more essential service long since, had it 
not been for the oath he gave to Lord Chatham, 
to preserve from all public investigation the con- 
nection formed in 1759 with the Quakeress. 

"I am aware, sir, that you may say I mtrude 
myself upon your royal notice very frequently ; 
but I think and feel it to be my indispensable duty 
and privilege. I have lately had an interview with 
Lord Liverpool ; but his lordship cannot serve 
your Royal Highness and the persecuted Princess 
of Wales. I, therefore, shall not submit myself 
to any further interviews with his lordship, by my 
own request. As I intend this letter as a final 
appeal and explanation to your Royal Highness, 
I beg to ask your forbearance and lenity on 
account of its length and detail. 

" Your Royal Highness has not forgotten how 
strangely I was allured from my father's court to 
receive your hand in marriage (the letters of 1794 
bear me witness). You cannot have forgotten the 
kind reception of the king, your father, on my 
arrival in the metropolis of this empire, and the 
sarcastic manners of the queen. Two days had 
scarcely passed after our marriage, when you com- 
manded me to receive Lady Jersey upon all occa- 
sions, although your Royal Highness was too well 


acquainted with the deep-laid schemes formed by 
her Majesty against me, which were to be put 
into execution by Lady Jersey ; and when I most 
humbly requested of you that I might be secluded 
from all society rather than endure that which 
was so hateful to me, your Royal Highness cannot 
have forgotten the inhuman reply you made me : 
* The Princess of Brunswick has answered every 
purpose I desired, inasmuch as my debts are to 
be settled, and my income augmented, and I will 
provide an heir to the throne more worthy of 
popular regard than any descendant of my father's 
family could ever prove.' These, sir, were words 
of so heavy and doubtful a character, that from 
that moment I never forgot them ; and from the 
hour in which my Charlotte was bom, I have 
feared for her health and happiness. How your 
Royal Highness could thus insult me, you can 
best imagine. 

"Another most material grievance imposed 
upon me was your unnatural remark to Lady 
Jersey, in my presence, *that you thought the 
king too fond of the Princess of Wales ; and if 
her Royal Highness had any children, his Majesty 
would no doubt be the father, instead of the grand- 
father.' Lady Jersey's reply will never be effaced 
from my memory, while reason holds her empire : 
' Yes, my prince, and you deserve it, if ever you 
notice the Princess of Wales again in the char- 
acter of a husband or lover.' Your Royal High- 



ness may remember I instantly left the room, 
more deeply insulted and wounded than language 
can describe. From that time, I was aware of my 
cruel fate, and I did deeply deplore the necessity 
which Jiad forced me from the much-loved scenes 
of my infancy and youthful years. 

"The very remarkable request of Mr. Pitt, in 
1800, for a private interview with me, was another 
cause for disquiet to my mind ; but I acceded im- 
mediately, and he accordingly was admitted. The 
object of that minister's visit was to solicit my 
silence upon the subject of the bondholders, whose 
fate had caused so great an interest in several 
countries, and whose families had been the victims 
of their ready acquiescence to the wishes of the 
royal princes. 'But,' said Mr. Pitt, 'these affairs 
are of as much consequence to your Royal High- 
ness as they are to the other members of the royal 
family ; and if matters of this kind are to be can- 
vassed publicly, your Royal Highness may rest 
assured that ere long your family will not be per- 
mitted to occupy the exalted rank and station they 
now enjoy. I therefore most earnestly recommend 
that your Royal Highness does not name these 
subjects to any of the anti-ministerial party, who 
are not at present in possession of the circum- 
stances.' I do not doubt but Mr. Pitt laid the 
whole of this conversation before your Royal 
Highness, and he must have noticed the very 
cool and guarded reception I gave him. To have 


behaved openly to Mr. Pitt was impossible, as I 
knew too well his avowed hostile feelings against 
me. But a few days had elapsed after this inter- 
view, when I had the pleasure of seeing the good 
king. I now take the liberty of laying before 
your Royal Highness the substance of our conver- 
sation. * My dear daughter/ said his Majesty, * I 
hear Pitt has paid you a confidential visit.' ' Yes, 
Sire, he has,* I replied. * What was the object of 
it ? ' * Upon the subject of the bondholders, your 
Majesty.* ' I hope you made no rash promise ? ' 
said the king. *None, Sire.* *Why could not 
Pitt have called upon you at a more suitable 
hour, Caroline .^ * * I do not know. Sire ; but I 
plainly saw Mr. Pitt did not think much etiquette 
was necessary to the Princess of Wales, as he well 
knew it was my dinner-hour; and yet I was de- 
termined not to refuse myself, as I was perfectly 
sure the whole of the affair would be reported to 
the queen.* * Caroline, my niece,' said the king, 
'do not, pray do not, fear Pitt, or any of my 
family. I will put you in possession of some 
affairs which will soon silence them all ; and be- 
fore the end of this week I will send you a small 
parcel of important papers, by the hand of a trusty 

" Your royal father most scrupulously kept his 
word, and enclosed me the proofs he had named, 
and promised to send. Many times since then 
have I informed your Royal Highness that I was 


in confidence upon those subjects ; but you have 
never condescended to acknowledge those com- 
munications, or expressed one sentiment of obliga- 
tion for the strict silence I have observed. I have 
been restrained only from the most ardent and 
parental affection to my lovely daughter, or long 
ere this I would have proclaimed the extent of the 
wrongs I have endured from some of the illegal 
and unjust impositions practised upon me and the 
British nation. Your Royal Highness knew, at 
the moment you met me at the altar in the palace, 
that you were already the affianced husband of 
Mrs. Fitzherbert, and you were well aware that 
if my uncle, the king, had known of that former 
circumstance, he would have prevented the left- 
handed marriage taking place. In this his Majesty 
was deceived, and I have been the victim of your 
intentional imposition. It has generally been sup- 
posed by your Royal Highness's family connections 
that there was some impropriety or defect by 
which you received an unfavourable opinion of 
me in the early part of our fatal marriage; and, 
in my presence, your Royal Highness has insulted 
me by such insinuations, though you well know 
I was not the offender, but the offended ! Up to 
this period, I have buried your Royal Highnesses 
unnatural conduct to me in my own bosom ; but 
if I am to be so injured, and if my character is to 
be so vilified, I shall explain myself to the nation, 
and think I am performing an imperative duty. 


Your Royal Highness cannot have forgotten the 
outrage you committed by entering my chamber 
at Montague House, and your denial of it to the 
queen, your mother, for the avowed purpose of 
traducing my honour. Had I not then been re- 
strained from explanation upon those base designs, 
by an unalterable love to my child, I should have 
exposed the infamous conduct you manifested 
toward me. 

** I name these things, sir, to prove to you the 
inviolable honour I have observed, in despite of 
aU the insults and provocations I have received 
from your Royal Highness and the queen, and 
also from the creatures employed to ruin me in 
the estimation of this generous English nation. 
A time will come when the secrets of my life will 
be published to the world ; then let the unprej- 
udiced judge. I remain, sir, 

" Your Royal Highness's most 

" Faithful wife and cousin, 

"Caroline P. 

" To his Royal Highness^ the Prince Regent,^^ 

It is more than probable that the confidentially 
private and notorious secretary (M'Mahon) was the 
receiver of these appeals and documents, who, pos- 
sessing the most unbounded assurance in the ability 
of his royal master's coadjutors to carry any plan 
into execution, or to prevent vexatious trouble to 
any extent, suppressed them at the moment when 


they might have proved of the greatest conse- 
quence to her Royal Highness. We cannot 
wonder at this, when we take into account the 
character of this private secretary, who dared 
to violate the rights of friendship, and break 
through the most sacred ties of conjugal affec- 
tion, treating the honourable engagements of 
persons in general as matters of minor conse- 
quence. Were this depraved man now an in- 
habitant of the earth, we would ask him if his 
recollection could furnish the number of inroads 
he had made upon the abodes of innocence and 
beauty, to gratify his royal patron. We could 
ourselves name several instances; but one will 
suffice, which we copy from the manuscript of a 
friend, and the substance of which has been before 


M'Mahon Makes a Journey — And Conceives a Villainous Plot 
— The Protector of Innocence Is Removed — An Outrage 
Is Perpetrated — A Personal Opinion — 1814 — Her Maj- 
esty, a Tyrant — A Life of Continued Misfortune ^ Princely 
Misbehaviour — Further Persecution of the Princess — An In- 
vention — Honours, F6tes, and Festivals — Lord Castlereagh's 
Motion — A Separation — A Motherly Epistle — The King 
Promises Protection — Dazzling Entertainments — Princess 
Charlotte's Unhappiness — The King's Health. 

[HE private secretary of the prince 
(M'Mahon) was accustomed to retire for 
recreation to Bath, at certain periods. 
At the time to which we now advert, he was 
travelling to that city, and, at Marlborough, a 
respectable and venerable gentleman, accompanied 
by two young ladies, took his seat in the stage- 
coach. The courtier was not wanting in atten- 
tions, and, in reply to his numerous questions, he 
soon received the information " that the gentleman 
was a poor clergyman, residing near Mariborough; 
that the two young ladies were his daughters, 
whom he then was accompanying to visit a relation 
at Bath." M'Mahon's polished manners, added to 
the fixed determination of sacrificing these ladies 
to his royal master's desires, had the hoped-for 



effect, and the deluded party was anxious to culti- 
vate further acquaintance with the stranger. Two 
days after their arrival, the intriguing secretary 
wrote and despatched the following letter to the 
prince : 

« (Most Private.) 

" Bath, Sunday Evening. 
" Sir : — Ever alive to the obtaining possession 
of any object which may contribute to your royal 
pleasures, I hasten to inform your Royal Highness 
that chance has thrown me into the company of 
two most lovely girls, the daughters of an indigent 
curate, and who, from their apparent simplicity and 
ignorance of the world, may be soon brought to 
comply with the wishes of your Royal Highness. 
I shall immediately devise some plan by which they 
may be induced to visit the metropolis, and the 
remainder of my task will then not be difficult 
of execution. The prize is too valuable to be lost 
sight of ; the elder of the girls bears some resem- 
blance in her form and make to Hillisberg, although 
it is evident that the whole fulness of her growth 
has not yet developed itself. The younger is more 
of a languishing beauty ; but, from the knowledge 
which I possess of your royal taste, the elder will 
be the object of your choice. 

*• I have the honour to remain, etc., 

"John M*Mahon. 

" To his Royal Highness^ the Prince Regent^ etc^ 


The intimacy at Bath was cultivated. M'Mahon 
promised to intercede for the interest of the worthy 
clergyman, and afterward engaged to ensure him 

In the midst of explanations, promises, and en- 
gagements, M'Mahon was summoned to town by 
the royal order. Ere he departed, he promised, 
instantly upon seeing the prince, to lay their case 
before him, and dwelt in vivid terms upon the 
effects of such a representation. Within the ensu- 
ing fortnight, the clergyman received a letter from 
him, announcing " that a vicarage was vacant, in 
the gift of the Crown, to which he should receive 
the presentation." M'Mahon again visited Bath, 
and recommended the clergyman and family to 
take up their abode in the metropolis. For this 
purpose, he had engaged apartments in the house 
of Mrs. General Hamilton, in Gloucester Place, 
to which they soon resorted. In the meantime, 
M'Mahon informed the clergyman that his induction 
would shortly take place, and that, in the interim, 
he must employ himself in the most agreeable man- 
ner, as also his daughters, in such amusements as 
the town afforded. Mrs. Hamilton was also pleased 
to say she would be their conductor and companion 
upon all occasions. The lady just named was a 
gay, though unsuspected character. Shortly after 
this period, at an evening party, M'Mahon intro- 
duced Colonel Fox, "a gentleman,** he said, "allied 
to the noblest families and of an immense fortune." 


If our readers should here inquire, who was 
Colonel Fox ? we answer, — the Prince of Wales. 

We hasten to the conclusion of this most in- 
famous history. The deceived clergyman was 
informed that he must proceed to a village in 
Leicestershire, where his induction would instantly 
take place ; and he, therefore, hastily took leave of 
his daughters, with an assurance that they were 
in the best society. Indeed, Mrs. Hamilton had 
evinced such interest and apparent solicitude in 
their happiness, that his heart was relieved from 
any doubts for their safety. This amiable father 
took leave of his children in the most affectionate 
manner; but little did he imagine that embrace 
would be the last he should ever receive from 
them, — yet so it proved. A short time after, 
early in the day, M'Mahon called upon Mrs. Gen- 
eral Hamilton, expressing the necessity of her 
seeing her solicitor upon some affairs relative to 
the estate of her deceased husband. 

The carriage was ordered, and the secretary 
promised to remain with the younger, while the 
elder sister accompanied Mrs. Hamilton. " We will 
first drive to Taylor's, in Bond Street," said Mrs. 
Hamilton, "he has some commissions to execute 
for me," and accordingly they were set down there. 

The obsequious shoemaker requested them to 
walk into the drawing-room, which they did ; 
and in a few minutes Mrs. Hamilton said, " I will 
now step down and transact my business with 


Taylor." In a short time she returned, saying, 
" How truly fortunate we are ; Colonel Fox has 
just entered the shop, and, being informed you are 
here, has solicited permission to keep you company 
until I return from my solicitor's; you cannot 
refuse the request ; " and then, without waiting a 
reply, she left the room. The pretended Colonel 
Fox entered ; he professed eternal love and unalter- 
able constancy ; and, within one hour, this lovely, 
but most unfortunate, female was added to the 
infamously swelled list of the prince's debaucheries 
and cruel seductions. The younger sister still lives, 
— a melancholy proof of outraged and insulted 

We have given this detail to satisfy the scrupu- 
lous portion of society that the prince merited a 
thousandfold more exposure and execration than 
he ever received. 

At this period Mr. Whitbread was very press- 
ing with the Princess of Wales, advising her to 
make a tour upon the Continent, in order to divert 
her mind from the provocations she was so fre- 
quently called upon to endure. Upon one occa- 
sion, he urged the subject with considerable 
warmth, and his great earnestness surprised her 
Royal Highness. With her usual readiness, she 
said : " I feel sure Mr. Whitbread does not intend 
anythmg disagreeable in these remarks ; but, sir, 
are you aware that Mr. Canning has been pressing 
the' same opinion upon my notice ? and I do not 


comprehend why this suggestion is made by you 
also. If I go away, shall I not leave my beloved 
child exposed to the determinate will and caprice 
of the queen, and others, who, doubtless, will vex 
her as much as possible ? Are you, sir, requested 
to represent this to me, or is it your private opin- 
ion ? " Mr. Whitbread replied, " It is my personal 
opinion, and solely to provide against any unhappy 
effects arising from the queen's displeasure, which," 
he added, " I well know is unbounded." 

On the 27th of May the princess went to the 
Opera House. It was her first appearance in pub- 
lic since her triumphant acquittal. Her Royal 
Highness was received with considerable acclama- 
tions, while even her enemies were compelled to 
acknowledge "the dignity, delicacy, and feeling 
preeminently displayed in her behaviour." 

On the 30th the regent gave a grand supper 
and ball, but the princess was not invited. 

The supplies required for the service of this 
year 'amounted to upwards of one hundred and 
twenty millions. 

Endless vexations and anxieties attended the 
Princess of Wales up to the year 18 14; but the 
public voice cheered her to the ultimate defeat of 
her base enemies. 

The transactions of this year do not reflect much 
credit upon certain misnamed illustrious individu- 
als, and can never fail to excite contempt in the 
minds of the British people. The Douglas party 


were promised rewards, which they could not 
obtain, except in a less degree, as it was alleged 
they had failed in a principal part of their un- 
worthy undertaking; namely, the degradation of 
the princess, by a full and unlimited verdict against 
her Royal Highness, agreeable to the charges 
they had preferred. 

The disappointed queen was indignant beyond 
bounds, at the honourable acquittal of the Princess 
of Wales. "What!" said her Majesty, "am I 
for ever to be disappointed by the adroit talents 
of the princess, whose very name I hate ! It must 
not be. If she be recognised as an unblemished 
character, I am well satisfied the odium of the 
whole pf oceeding will fall upon me ; and rather 
would I prefer death than suffer her Royal High- 
ness to triumph over me." 

Lord Castlereagh was then consulted by the 
queen, and he engaged to do his utmost against 
the princess ; and the regent again suggested the 
idea of her going abroad, when steps, more effec- 
tual, might be taken to ruin her character. Lord 
Castlereagh, therefore, the next day informed the 
princess, by a note, '* that for the present time all 
interviews with the Princess Charlotte must cease." 

On the 7th of January the Princess of Wales 
gave an entertainment at Montague House, where 
a select party was invited, in honour of the Prin- 
cess Charlotte's birthday, who had now attained 
her eighteenth year. 


An unexpected event, about this period, gave 
the Princess Charlotte an interview with her 
mother for nearly two hours, in which these aflfec- 
tionate relatives enjoyed an undisturbed conversa- 
tion. The Princess Charlotte was very explicit in 
her communications to her dear mother on the se- 
verity of the queen, during the time she had lately 
spent with her Majesty at Windsor ; and, among 
other observations, remarked, " Her Majesty is a 
tyrant to all around her. If you walk out with 
the queen," continued the charming and noble 
princess, "you are sure to be told your pace is 
disagreeable, — either too quick or too slow. If 
you feel pleasure in seeing any sweet pretty plant, 
and express admiration of its several beautiful 
colours, and its various delicate appearances, you 
are sure to be told such observations prove your 
want of taste and judgment. Indeed, my dear 
mother, I like anybody better than my disagree- 
able grandmother, and I can never permit myself 
to remain with her so long again. When I am at 
the castle, I am seldom allowed to see my grand- 
father, the king ; and, when I do, he scarcely looks 
at me, and seems extremely unhappy. When my 
royal father goes to the castle, he is always with 
the queen alone, and very rarely pays a visit to the 
king.*' Such was the ingenuousness of the Prin- 
cess Charlotte. She would immediately speak the 
truth, and defy all results, rather than act with 
dissimulation to please or conciliate any one. 


This was the longest interview which was to fall 
to the lot of these high-spirited and generous- 
minded personages. Alas! their destiny might 
have been portrayed by the pen of cruelty, and 
traced in characters of blood ! At parting, the 
princess most tenderly embraced her mother, and 
that parent for the moment forgot all her sorrows. 
But what was her agitation, when her only hope 
was saying, ** Farewell ! " Agonising — beyond 
all expression — agonising ! We must sympathise 
with such sorrows, and admit the propriety of the 
remark of the Princess of Wales at this separation, 
" My life has already been too long, since it has 
been one continued scene of misfortune." 

The prince regent now paid a visit to the Duke 
of Rutland, for the avowed purpose of standing 
sponsor to the young marquis, the duke's son and 
heir. The preparations for the reception and ac- 
commodation of his Royal Highness were upon 
the most magnificent scale, which, we are sorry to 
relate, were little else than thrown away. In the 
evening, the sparkling goblet was so freely emptied 
by the royal guest, that he was obliged to be car- 
ried to the chamber prepared for him. Do not 
imagine, gentle reader, that we are disposed to 
dwell ill-naturedly on the mischances of this luck- 
less night ; but the prince was unfortunate, and 
committed such sins and transgressions in this 
ducal apartment, and in the bed prepared for him, 
that, at a very early hour, his carriage was ordered, 


and his Royal Highness was on the road to Lon- 
don. The domestics at Belvoir Castle were left 
to' relate this very disagreeable incident, and tes- 
tify that the means required for the purification 
of their master's premises were of no common 
quality ! 

However facetiously we may have spoken of 
this "untoward occurrence," yet we recoil with 
disgust and indignation from such scenes. How 
revolting is the reflection that this was the prince 
invested with kingly authority, and to whom so 
many millions of intelligent beings were looking 
for the redress of their grievances, and the amelior- 
ation of their many miseries ! 

The king's indisposition increased in the early 
part of this year, and the overbearing tyranny of 
the queen consequently knew no bounds. In May, 
she addressed several notes to the Princess of 
Wales to forbid her appearance at the drawing- 
room, to which her Royal Highness replied very 
spiritedly. Some of these letters were afterward 
published, but several were suppressed. It was at 
this time that the prince expressed his unalterable 
determination "never again to meet the princess, 
either in public or private,'* and the queen was the 
person who communicated his Royal Highness's 
unmanly vow to the princess. 

About three weeks after this announcement, 
some illustrious foreigners, who were formerly 
intimate with the family of the princess, paid her 


Royal Highness a visit ; and, on the ensuing day, 
they received her Royal Highnesses invitation to 
dine with her on that day se*nnight. It was accepted 
with pleasure ; but, only about an hour previous to 
the appointed time for dinner, an apology was sent, 
asking pardon for the delay, which was said to be 
unavoidable, as the impediments arose from the 
commands of the regent, which had only been 
communicated to them a few hours before. Upon 
Mr. Canning*s next visit to the princess, he ex- 
plained the reason of this shameful conduct by 
saying " that Colonel M*Mahon desired, as a com- 
pliment, they would dine at Carlton House that 
day, and expressed an apology for the shortness of 
the invitation, as the regent had some days before 
given him his instructions to invite them, but that 
he (the colonel) had forgotten it in the hurry of 
business. Now," added Mr. Canning, "I know 
this story to be an invention ; for it was only on 
the very morning of the day appointed by your 
Royal Highness that a brother of the regent heard 
of their intended visit, and informed him of it ; and ' 
the prince then commanded M'Mahon to invite the 
party to dine at Carlton House, which they could 
not refuse, as etiquette would forbid their accept- 
ing any engagement in preference to that of the 
regent." Was there ever a more artful and vin- 
dictive piece of business concocted } How worthy 
was the master of such a scheming servant as 
M'Mahon I 


In June the allied sovereigns arrived in London, 
and fdtes and festivals followed in close succession. 
New honours were conferred upon several per- 
sons who had been leaders in the late war. Lord 
Wellington was created Marquis of Douro and 
Duke of Wellington. To support this new dig^ty 
four hundred thousand pounds were granted to 
him by the boroughmongering majority. 

In consequence of the queen's edict, the Princess 
of Wales was excluded from the drawing-rooms, 
held in honour of the illustrious guests, and this extra 
piece of persecuting malice sufficiently attested the 
littleness of the minds of her too powerful enemies. 

Under these trying circumstances, Mr. Canning 
and Mr. Whitbread again urged their advice, that 
it would be better for all parties if the princess 
absented herself for a period, as the queen was so 
severe to the Princess Charlotte, in consequence 
of her regard for her mother. This consideration 
was enough for the fond parent. ** Yes," said her 
Royal Highness, " for the sake of my child I will 
leave England ; I feel assured that my afflicted 
father-in-law, the king, cannot long survive ; he is 
failing very gradually. But the crisis may be 
sudden ; in that case, you know my situation, and 
what has been refused to the Princess of Wales 
cannot, I presume, be refused to the Queen of 
England. In making this reference, I merely and 
only mean, that I have hitherto been treated with 
the most unmerited severity and the greatest in- 


justice ; this, I hope, will not be permitted in the 
event of my being queen. I name this to satisfy 
you, as my friends, that whenever I can return to 
this country with safety to my child, and honour 
to my few zealous friends, I shall not lose one 
moment in answering the summons." 

On the 4th of June Lord Castlereagh moved, in 
the committee of the House, that fifty thousand 
pounds be annually paid to her Royal Highness, 
the Princess of Wales. Mr. Whitbread offered 
some very correct and spirited remarks upon the 
subject, and the motion was agreed to. The prin- 
cess, in the most generous manner, wrote to the 
Speaker on the 5 th, declining to receive more than 
thirty-five thousand, adding, as a reason for this, 
her dislike to increase the already heavy burdens 
imposed upon the nation. 

The ill-natured manner in which this most 
honourable act was received is best explained in 
the words of Lord Castlereagh, who, on the 8th, 
called the attention of the House to the letter of 
the princess, and concluded by saying, " It is not 
my duty to vote the public money to a subject 
who is not inclined to receive it." Her Royal 
Highness certainly was not much indebted to Lord 
Castlereagh for his very elegant and noble mention 
of her name, thus made ; and the most dim-sighted 
person might have easily seen that " if the vessel 
came safe to shore," a marquisate would be the 
reward of the pilot. 


The Princess of Wales at length requested leave 
of the ministers to go abroad. This was very 
readily granted, and, after some arrangements for 
correspondence, her Royal Highness prepared to 
depart. A very short interview was permitted 
with the child of her hopes and affections, while 
even that was attended by the ladies in waiting. 
They separated then, — to meet no more in this 

It was during this affecting interview that her 
Royal Highness committed some letters of impor- 
tance to the care of her noble-minded daughter ; 
and, as it appeared impossible for any private con- 
versation to pass between them, a letter accom- 
panied the others, addressed to the Princess 
Charlotte by her afflicted mother, of which the 
following is a transcript : 

Copy of a Letter to my dear Charlotte^ Princess of 


" 1814, June 7th. 
" My DEAREST Child : — I deposit to your 
keeping a small parcel of letters for my much- 
esteemed friend, Lady . I well know her 

generous disposition will cause her to endure a 
vast load of sorrow on my account, and, from 
these documents, the nation may one day be bold. 
I must tell you, my dearest child, that in con- 
formity to my father and mother's opinion, I 
became the wife (so called) of your father. Well 


do I remember the time when my dear father, the 
Duke of Brunswick, entered my library (holding 
in his hand a letter), saying, * Caroline, my love, I 
desire you will give your attention to the request 
of your most excellent uncle, the King of Eng- 
land, and, without any demur, engage to many 
your cousin George. He is undoubtedly the most 
elegant man and the most accomplished gentle- 
man in Europe. Very unfortunately, this prince 
has been captivated by the many beautiful ladies 
surrounding the court ; but although he may have 
committed himself in formal engagements, yet the 
prince is the most ready, desirous, and expectant 
supplicant for your hand!' I started, and ex- 
claimed, *What, my dear sire?' The sequel, 
however, is sufficient. I came to England. I 
was received heroically by the people, flatteringly 
by the persons deputed to attend me, and sarcasti- 
cally by the queen, my aunt ; but most pleasantly 
by the king, my uncle, and the prince, my destined 
husband. After my marriage with the prince, 
your father, I soon had occasion to regret my 
change of situation. However, I strove to con- 
ceal my disappointment and chagrin, and appeared 
as lively as if I had no cause for regret. Speedily 
after my marriage, I was informed that the prince 
was not my legal husband ; that, some time pre- 
vious to our marriage, he had been united to Mrs. 
Fitzherbert, and therefore our engagement was 
null and void. I opened the sorrows of my heart 


to the good king. * Ah ! Ah ! ' said his majesty, 
* I will befriend you, but my family will prove my 
ruin. They care not for anything beside their 
own ease, and they, sooner or later, will lose the 
crown by such improper conduct. The disposition 
of my son George is unrelenting ; but I will tell 
you, my dear niece, that you may subdue his pub- 
lic injurious mention of your character, if you 
make use of proper means. My son is so lascivi- 
ous, that if you would attempt to hide his defects, 
they would speedily become more apparent.' In 
the course of conversation, his Majesty informed 
me of the untimely end of his brother Edward, 
and also of the marriage and issue of that brother, 
who, he stated, had been educated for the Church ; 
and also, that he had frequently seen him during 
his residence at Eton with no small degree of 
affection and regret, and had even appointed inter- 
views with the individual under whose care he was 
placed, to adopt plans for his welfare. I confess, 
my dear Charlotte, I was quite unprepared for this 
exposition, and I answered, with much warmth, 
'Does your Majesty mean to say that his Royal 
Highness left issue which has never been acknowl- 
edged ? ' * I do, indeed,' replied the king, * and 
though the affair has been hitherto kept from the 
public, yet I fancy it will, one day or another, be 
made known.' My dear Charlotte will conceive 
how much I felt upon these singular explanations. 
I long to tell you more upon the subject, but as 


our confidential messenger is waiting, I must con- 
clude by subscribing myself 

** Your very affectionate mother, 

" Caroline." 

The persecuted wife of the heir-apparent now 
prepared to leave England. Her Royal Highness 
went to Worthing on the 2d of August, and on 
the 9th embarked for the Continent, with a heart 
heavily charged with the most poignant feelings. 

The evening of her departure was spent in riot- 
ing and drunkenness by the inhabitants of Carlton 
House, as they had now attained a portion of their 
dishonourable object, and, in a great measure, 
relied upon final success. The entertainments 
given at this period by the " unparalleled, prince " 
were of the most dazzling and costly description. 
The massive services of richly chased gold, and 
the viands served upon them, in addition to every 
luxurious appendage, were daily superseded by 
others, still more rare and expensive than the pre- 
ceding ones. Hundreds of thousands were thus 
lavished on useless pomp, while, perhaps, a poor 
tradesman, who had received the honour of an 
order by command of the prince, and had bor- 
rowed the larger portion of the means to enable 
him to execute it, solicited, in the most humble 
manner, a portion of his debt ; but, alas ! solicited 
in vain ; and, after daring to press his destitute 
and ruined condition several times, is probably 


forbidden ever to ask for the settlement again, but 
to wait the royal pleasure. His impatient credi- 
tors, in the interim, arrest him ; he is carried to a 
prison, and, in the agony of his soul, commits sui- 
cide. Many a wife and family of children have 
thus been reduced to a workhouse, and the 
greater number of them afterward thrown upon 
the town. But — these are some of the privileges 
of royalty ! 

The reminiscences of the queen were sometimes 
rather painful ; and, shortly after she had driven 
her daughter-in-law from the country, symptoms 
of melancholy were observed. Her physicians, 
therefore, recommended a change of air; and, in 
order to amuse her Majesty, it was proposed that 
she should repair to Brighton for a short time, 
accompanied by the princesses. 

The Princess Charlotte, after the departure of 
her much-beloved mother, appeared very unhappy, 
and, from that time, saw her father and grand- 
mother as seldom as possible. They well knew 
she was favourable to her mother's cause, in op- 
position to theirs, not only from the very great 
affection which she naturally felt for her mother, 
but also from the numberless proofs she had ob- 
served of the honourable motives by which the 
conduct of the Princess of Wales had been influ- 
enced. To these might be added the opinion of 
the virtuous part of the nation upon the subject, 
and the very great respect at all times paid to her 


Royal Highness by those persons who were inde- 
pendent of the royal family and the government. 

Upon her Majesty's return to Windsor, she 
found the king something improved in natural 
spirits, but desirous not to be troubled with un- 
necessary visitors. This slight improvement was, 
however, but of short duration ; for, in a few days 
afterward, this distressingly afflicted sovereign re- 
lapsed into insensibility, and frequently became 
very boisterous in his conduct. 

The amount required for this year's service was 
upwards of one hundred and sixteen millions, 
twenty-seven of which were raised by loans. 


An Unpleasant Situation — A Hopeful Son Goes Wrong Matri- 
monially—A Grant Debated — Whitbread's Suicide — The 
Birth of Tory Aristocracy — Another Royal Marriage — Eng- 
lish Generosity — Charlotte and Leopold — *' The Augsburgh 
Gazettes" — Distressing State of the Country — Death of 
Richard Brinsley Sheridan — His Relations to the Prince — 
The Rejuvenation of Mrs. Fitxherbert — Plots against Prin- 
cess Charlotte — A Hanoverian Baron as a Spy — He Is 
Challenged to a Duel — A Footman's Confession — Prepa- 
rations — Another Plot — Popularity of Princess Charlotte — 
Situation of the Nation. 



|HE year 1815 commenced under numer- 
ous public and private difficulties. The 
regent found himself in a very unpleas- 
ant situation, being under a necessity of increasing 
the number of the various orders of knighthood 
in order to preserve himself a sufficiency of adher- 
ents. A strange concatenation of events had 
also placed the rest of the royal family in an 
uneasy position. The Duke of Kent, some con- 
siderable time before, entered into a positive 
engagement with a foreign princess by solemnly 
promising her marriage ; yet, upon requesting his 
mother's approbation of the choice he had made, 
how great was his surprise and indignation to find 

that she would not listen to it. But, hastily 



snatching up the letter a second time, she said, 
"It is impossible such things can be permitted; 
we need money too much in our own family to 
squander it upon these miserably poor connec- 
tions." This indignant lady quite forgot, or did 
not wish to remember, her own origin, and the 
great wealth she had brought to this country! 
Ere this self-important personage had said so 
much she should have called to mind the many 
noble acts by which she had been distinguished 
above all other royal ladies, and ought to have 
reflected how many thousands had suffered priva- 
tions and want to permit her royal self and family 
to live in splendour, and how many had been pri- 
vately disposed of to satisfy her inordinate ambi- 
tion and insatiable thirst for power ! 

Her Majesty had also another mortification to 
endure in the marriage of her hopeful son, the 
Duke of Cumberland, with the Princess of Salms. 
Lord Castlereagh, always happy to take from the 
people, had the audacity to propose an additional 
grant to the Duke of Cumberland upon his alliance 
with a lady so congenial to the taste and talents 
of his Royal Highness. The House of Commons, 
however, opposed this grant, and several members 
made the most severe though just remarks upon the 
character of Ernest Augustus on this occasion. 

" Mr. R. Gordon rose, and declared that he 
could not reconcile it to his sense of duty to 
allow this motion to pass with a silent vote against 


it. He was astonished at the observation of the 
noble lord (Castlereagh) who brought forward this 
motion last night, that he did not apprehend any 
opposition, while he agreed with the noble lord 
that it must be painful to hear any reflections upon 
the character of the individual referred to, or any 
comments whatever at all likely to depreciate the 
consequence of the illustrious family to whom that 
individual belonged. But ministers alone were to 
blame in dragging the Duke of Cumberland before 
that House. If any reflections were thrown out 
against that individual, it was the fault of minis- 
ters in forcing him upon the consideration of that 
House. After what had notoriously passed with 
respect to this individual and his connections, — 
after the rumours that were afloat upon the sub- 
ject, — he could not, by any means, concur with 
the noble lord that this was not to be regarded as 
a personal question.'' 

" Mr. Bennet said the Duke of Cumberland, of 
all the branches of the royal family, was the only 
one who could come to that Jlouse and make an 
application for money, which he should feel com- 
pelled to oppose. He appealed to every person in 
the committee, whether they did not hear out of 
that House every individual in the country express 
one uniform feeling with respect to that person- 
age, — a feeling decidedly averse from any dis- 
position to concur in such a grant as was now 
proposed. It was impossible even to go to what 


was called fashionable society without hearing the 
same feeling of disrespect expressed." 

" Lord Nugent disapproved of the grant pro- 
posed, with reference to the time in which, to 
the manner in which, and to the person for whom, 
the grant was proposed. He differed with his 
honourable friend who spoke first in the debate 
not in his vote, but in that he did not admit public 
rumour to influence his vote. For his own part, he 
voted mainly on evidence which could come before 
the House only by public rumour, — public rumour 
uncontradicted and unencountered." 

" Lord A. Hamilton thought the House was 
called upon to consider the merits of the individ- 
ual before it assented to this proposition, unless 
it were assumed that, upon the marriage of any 
branch of the royal family, the House was bound 
to grant an additional allowance without any con- 
sideration of the nature of the marriage, which 
was a proposition too preposterous to be main- 
tained. The intimation, too, which he understood 
to be authentic, that it was the intention of the 
Duke of Cumberland not to reside in this country, 
furnished another argument against the present 
measure ; nay, it was stated that the grant was 
brought forward upon the settled condition that 
his Royal Highness should fix his residence else- 

« Mr. Methuen contended that the House ought 
to show by its vote that night that it was not 


inattentive to the morals of the country, and that 
therefore he should oppose the grant, not from 
the slightest personal motives, but merely in the 
conscientious discharge of what he conceived to 
be his duty." 

" Sir H. Montgomery said that when the pres- 
ent bill was first brought into the House he voted 
for it, because he thought the proposed sum was 
no more than what was necessary ; but, from what 
he had heard since, he ahnost fancied he had done 
something very wrong. In the present case, how- 
ever, he really saw nothing which would warrant 
the House in putting such a stigma upon his 
Royal Highness as would be conveyed by refus- 
ing the grant." 

The House of Commons did refuse the grant, 
though only by a small majority. But this major- 
ity was sufficient, according to Sir H. Montgomery, 
one of his Royal Highness's admirers, to cast a 
stigma on the Duke of Cumberland. 

As soon as the Princess of Wales was known 
to have left Brunswick, and while proceeding to 
Geneva, persons were despatched from the British 
court to watch all the movements and pursuits of 
her Royal Highness, and to report accordingly 
through agents appointed for the mean purpose. 
Our country's money was used upon this base 
business with no sparing hand. Mr. Whitbread, 
being perfectly aware that these secret contri- 
vances were put into execution, felt more in fear 


of some evil result to the princess than if she had 
remained in England. He, as well as many others, 
knew that assassination was of very frequent 
occurrence in Italy, and more than once ex- 
pressed himself anxious to see the princess safely 
landed again on our shores. But this was not 
permitted; for, on the 6th of July, this patriot 
committed suicide while in a state of mental aber- 
ration. He fell a sacrifice to the intensity of his 
feelings upon several most important subjects. 

As a man of firm principles, Mr. Whitbread was 
justly entitled to the praise of his countrymen. 
He never allowed himself to be bribed into dis- 
honourable actions; and we cannot, therefore, 
attribute his unhappy end to the stings of con- 
science. The man whose life, or a principal por- 
tion of it, has been spent in furthering the wily 
schemes and treacherous plans of others may, very 
probably, in the midst of enjoying the reward of 
his villainous conduct, be struck by memory's 
faithful reflection, and, afraid of exposure, prefer 
instant death ; but the patriot who loves his coun- 
try, and has largely contributed to the defence of 
justice and liberty, finding his exertions of no 
available use, and sick at heart at the insults levied 
against the oppressed, may be driven by despair 
to rush into the presence of his Maker by his own 
act. This latter case, no doubt, applies to the 
patriot whose untimely end we are now lamenting. 
It was Mr. Whitbread's glory to be an English- 


man, — it is his country's boast that he used his 
energies for her general benefit. He actively and 
fearlessly investigated the cause and nature of 
abuses, was the ready advocate of the oppressed, 
and the liberal friend of all mankind. 

The amount required for the service of this 
year was one hundred and sixteen millions, 
which was obtained from the heavily taxed people, 
earned by the sweat of their brow, and con- 
sequently by robbing their starving families of 

From such oppressive exactions, the present 
domineering Tory aristocracy has reared its un- 
blushing and hydra head. It was engendered in 
deception, brought forth by infamy, nursed by 
indolence, educated by sovereign power, and has 
long lived the life of an impostor — daring and 
hardy. We venture to predict, however, that its 
reign is drawing to a close; for the eyes of the 
whole nation are now fixed upon it, and its ex- 
crescences are discovered. Yes, the monster has 
outwitted itself, and from its seat will speedily 
shoot forth the tree of liberty. May its fruits 
prove healing to nations ! Merit will then be 
rewarded, industry recompensed, commerce re- 
vive, and tranquillity reign in society. Kings 
will learn to do justice, sanguinary laws will be 
abolished ; and thus the millennium of peace and 
joy will be established on a basis illustrious and 


At the commencement of the year 18 16 the 
intended marriage of the Princess Charlotte of 
Wales with Prince Leopold of Saxe-Cobourg was 
announced, which had received the sanction of the 
regent. This intended union appeared to us, for 
many reasons, highly improper, and too closely 
allied to the circumstances of George the Third. 
We knew, for a considerable period before this 
announcement, that Leopold had been paying the 
most devoted attentions to a lady of great merit 
and accomplishments ; and, also, that marriage had 
been promised. We likewise did not believe the 
prince was a Protestant from conviction, if he pro- 
fessed so to be ; and feared that, if finally the 
husband of the princess, he would only be a con- 
vert to our " established religion " from conve- 
nience, but really and in truth, by inclination and 
education, a Catholic. We do not name the relig- 
ious sentiments of the prince as any degradation 
or disqualification to his character as a man or as 
a prince, but simply to show that his principles 
prohibited his entrance, by marriage, into the 
English royal family; for the royal marriage act 
expressly declares "such marriages shall be null 
and void." 

While staying at the city of Augsburgh, in the 
early part of this year, we heard various reports 
upon the subject in question, and the paper of the 
day having met our eye, what were our feelings 
when we read the annexed paragraph ! 


"AuGSBURGH, January loth. 
" The Gazette of this city contains the following 
article, from Vienna, of January 3d : * Yesterday 
was celebrated, in the Cathedral Church of St. 
Stephen, in the presence of the reigning Duke of 
Saxe-Cobourg, the marriage of his brother. Prince 
Leopold, with the young and beautiful Countess 
of Cohaky, according to the rites of the Catholic 
Church.' " 

In contemplating this circumstance, every hon- 
est man must view the conduct of Leopold with 
indignation. Example is generally considered pref- 
erable to precept, and Leopold embraced this op- 
portunity of showing himself a convert to such 
doctrine. George the Third committed bigamy; 
his son George did the same ; and the remaining 
hope of England was destined to be a victim to 
similar wickedness I 

After some formal correspondence, the regent 
sent a message to both Houses of Parliament, on 
the 14th of March, to announce the marriage con- 
tract of his daughter, the Princess Charlotte, with 
his Serene Highness the Prince Leopold of Saxe- 
Cobourg. Sixty thousand pounds were voted to 
the illustrious couple annually ; and in case of her 
Royal Highness's demise, fifty thousand pounds 
per annum were to be paid to the prince for his 
life. Sixty thousand pounds were also granted 
for their outfit. 


Well may foreigners exclaim^ "How generous 
are the great English people ! " Alas ! it was not 
the act of the people; but the absolute will of 
imbecility, ignorance, and impudence, which we 
shall have further occasion to illustrate. 

We must now refer our readers to the former 
expectation of marriage between the Princess Char- 
lotte and the Prince of Orange. That union was 
much desired by the regent, because the Prince of 
Orange had promised unrelenting opposition to the 
Princess of Wales. As soon as the Princess. Char- 
lotte, however, became aware of this, she deter- 
minately refused to see the prince again ; and we 
well know that the Duchess of Oldenburgh took 
every possible opportunity to press Prince Leopold 
upon her notice. Up to the moment of the mar- 
riage, the Princess Charlotte did not hear or know 
a single word about the former serious engagement 
of her affianced husband, except the mean and pal- 
try report that "he had been very voluptuous in 
his gratifications, and was then desirous of bidding 
an eternal adieu to those who had formerly led 
him astray ! " On the other hand, Charlotte was 
tired of the overbearing and indiscriminate conduct 
of her grandmother, the queen ; and therefore 
resolved to free herself from such restraint. 

Previous to the marriage. Prince Leopold sol- 
emnly promised to fulfil every iota of the Princess 
Charlotte's wish, with respect to her abused and 
insulted mother; and further engaged that he 


never would permit or allow himself to be made a 
party, directly or indirectly, to injure the Princess 
of Wales, or to prevent any correspondence be- 
tween the daughter and mother, of which her 
Royal Highness the Princess Charlotte might 
approve. But of what signification were the 
promises of such a faithless man ! 

The former marriage of the prince was not con- 
sidered by the queen a sufficient impediment to his 
union with her granddaughter; and she used her 
utmost ability to suppress any representation con- 
trary to the interest of his Serene Highness. The 
Augsburgh Gazettes were, therefore, bought up at 
an immense expense, to save the character of this 
prince from public animadversion, and consequent 
contempt and hatred. 

On the 2 1st of February Prince Leopold arrived 
at the Clarendon Hotel. Lord Castlereagh waited 
upon his Serene Highness, and, on the following 
day. Sir B. Bloomfield arrived from Brighton, with 
the regent's command to invite the prince to the 

Early on the ensuing morning, the prince and 
Sir B. Bloomfield left town for Brighton; and 
his Serene Highness was received with as much 
warmth and friendship by the regent as if he had 
been an old acquaintance, or an especial friend in 

On the 27th, the queen, accompanied by the 
Princess Charlotte and two of the princesses, ar- 


rived at the Pavilion,^ from Windsor Castle; the 
interview was short between Leopold and his in- 
tended bride. The family resolved that the mar- 
riage should take place as soon as possible. The 
royal ladies returned to Windsor, and the prince 
remained at Brighton with the regent. 

At the time such immense sums were voted for 
this intended marriage and outfit, large means 
were also required for the support of our expensive 
establishments at home, which ought to have pre- 
vented any squandering of money upon foreigners^ 
for we could never consider Prince Leopold as one 
of the royal family of England. 

Mr. Vansittart, however, was very eloquent, in 
his way, in setting forth "the great, the incom- 
parably great*' station occupied by this country 
amongst the nations of the earth. In truth, we 
will tell the precise state of our then greatness. 
Our jails were crowded with farmers and the best 
of our tradesmen ; our streets and roads swarmed 
with beggars, nearly dying from filth and want; 
agriculture languished, and commerce was para- 
lysed ! 

After some delay, caused by circumstances not 
very honourable to Prince Leopold, the marriage 
took place on the 2d of May ; and a very general 
report obtained credit that Prince Leopold pro- 
nounced his responses very tremulously, scarcely 
articulating his portion of the ceremony. This 
could hardly be wondered at, as he well knew the 


sacrifice of honour he was then making, and the 
inconstancy of his former sacred vows. 

We pass over the time between the marriage 
and when the Princess Charlotte was declared 
enceinte. This occurred twice; but, after one 
disappointment, the accouchement was expected 
with all the ardour of English anticipation. 

The princess had generally expressed her opin- 
ion, that mankind, in reason, policy, philosophy, and 
religion, were all of one great family ; and hence 
arose her extreme aversion to the pomp and mag- 
nificence of the court. Indeed, the princess showed 
herself very frequently to the public, and was so 
free and gracious m her manners that she ap- 
peared in a natural English character, far opposed 
to the German pompous style. 

A circumstance of no inferior import occurred 
at this period, which gave suspicion to the inquir- 
ing spirit of the liberal part of the English nation. 
This was — the return to office of George Can- 
ning. By the Tories, the event was regarded as a 
last resource ; by the Whigs, his accession, under 
royal favour, was considered a token of victory. 
Each party was positively assured of an undeviating 
principle in this gentleman's character ; but each 
one had to learn that the opinion was erroneous. 

In this year died two individuals who had for- 
merly been the bosom companions of royalty. One 
of these, Mrs. Jordan, expired on the 5th of July, 
near Paris, and was buried in the cemetery of St. 


Qoud ; her body was put into a thin shell, stained 
blacky with no ornament whatever. Mrs. Jordan 
had lived in Paris for some time in great privacy 
and poverty, imder the assumed name of Mrs. 
James. Is not the newly created Earl of Munster, 
and one or two other great personages, the issue of 
this unfortunate lady's singular engagement with 
the prince of some great nation ? The other char- 
acter was Richard Brinsley Sheridan, the favourite 
companion and devoted servant of the Prince of 
Wales. Let his scanty means of subsistence be 
remembered whenever the name of the prince 
regent is mentioned. Yes, reader, the man who 
had devoted his highly improved and naturally 
eloquent abilities to the cause of this regent was 
permitted to die in the course of an arrest ! 

The sorrows and disappointments which Mrs. 
Jordan underwent in this world were of the most 
agonising description. Oh, why is it tolerated 
that royalty should be allowed to exercise the pre- 
rogative of inflicting the deepest woimds without 
the possibility of the injured party ever receiving 
redress } Is it not contrary to all laws, both 
human and divine, to suppose "the king can do 
no wrong > " If a prince commit an act of injus- 
tice, ought he not to be equally amenable with the 
peasant to the laws of his country ? We think so, 
and hope to see the day when the whole world 
will acknowledge its justness, and act upon its 


Upon the retrospect of Mr. Sheridan's life, we 
are forcibly struck by the ingratitude practised 
toward him by his royal master. The vices he 
had contracted were the results of his acquaintance 
with this "all-accomplished prince," and during 
the period of his successive debaucheries with him, 
he frequently added his name to notes of hand, 
upon sight, or at a longer date, for the prince's 
extravagancies, or to meet any demand that might 
be required upon a run of ill luck at the gaming- 
table. Even the debt for which he was arrested 
was contracted imder the last-mentioned circum- 
stances, and had been paid by a note given solely 
for the regent's use by this unfortunate^ courtier. 
As soon as the country became informed of the 
imkindness Sheridan had experienced, they saw 
the character of the prince in its true light, form- 
ing their opinions from facts only, and not from 
the sophistical meaning given to his actions by the 
absolute prince himself, or by the parasites in his 
service. Honest men could not help grieving at 
the reflection that the money produced by their 
labour, and even at the expense of depriving their 
families of comforts, was being squandered away 
at gambling-tables, upon unworthy characters, and 
in unwarrantable undertakings. The indignation 
caused by the base treatment of Mrs. Jordan 
and Sheridan manifested itself in several publica- 
tions of the day, and many facts were elicited 
relative to these two unfortunate individuals ; in- 


deed, there was scarcely a subject in the realm, at 
all acquainted with their shameful desertion, who 
did not indulge in some bold expression of disgust 
and abhorrence at the disgraceful conduct of cer- 
tain illustrious individuals, as being the causes of 
their multiplied sorrows and sufferings. 

There was a time when monarchs and peers 
would have lived on the meanest food, merely- 
sufficient to sustain human nature, in order to dis- 
charge the debts of a faithful servant; and it is 
well known that, to reduce the pressure of taxatioa 
or impost upon the poorer classes of society, a 
certain sovereign even pawned his jewels. But> 
alas ! this reign and regency did not present such 
an endearing feature to the nation ; on the con- 
trary, "the regent of blessed memory" would 
rather have pawned his subjects than have relaxed 
in his extravagant pleasures. 

The marriage of the Princess Mary with her 
cousin, the Duke of Gloucester, took place in 
July, and gave "general satisfaction;" though his 
Royal Highness never benefitted the people in any 
other way than honouring them by accepting their 

About this time a considerable sensation was 
produced by the reappearance of Mrs. Fitzherbert 
in the gay circles of fashion. The public journals 
noticed such an unexpected circumstance with 
timid expression, and professed that delicacy pre- 
vented any explanatory remarks. Ignorance and 


avarice were more probably the obstacles in the 
way; but it would have better become writers, 
who pretended to patriotism and independence of 
character, to have stated unhesitatingly what they 
did know of the intentions of the royal plotters ; 
they certainly might have paid a fine, or endured 
some imprisonment for speaking the truth ; yet he 
who falters when his country's weal is at stake is 
unworthy the name of — Briton ! 

The regent appeared now more determined than 
ever to procure a divorce from the Princess of 
Wales, and the means how this might be accom- 
plished were put in active preparation. All the 
ungenerous and mean expedients hitherto used had 
been unavailing to produce the desired end. Spies 
had not succeeded, and a bolder invention had there- 
fore become necessary. At the various courts 
connected with the " Holy Alliance,'* the princess 
had received very little attention ; but in every 
circle where her Royal Highness appeared, which 
was uninfluenced by the Crown, she was received 
rapturously, and treated most respectfully. 

Previous to the conclusion of this year, a naval 
captain was offered ten thousand pounds if he 
could, by any stratagem, obtain proof of adulter- 
ous intercourse between the princess and any per- 
son of rank whatever. The personage who made 
this offer is now alive, and if this statement of 
simple truth meet his eye, surely the blush of 
shame will dye his hardened cheek. 


The Baron Ompteda was also employed in this 
foul and diabolical plot, and, as a reward for his 
services, he has received a sufficiency from the 
hard-earned money of the tax-payers of this king- 
dom. We suggest that it had been quite in char- 
acter to have presented the same in a purse, with 
" the reward of villainy " inscribed upon it. 

We will here lay before our readers a plain 
statement of facts relative to the persecutions 
which the unfortunate Princess of Wales endured 
abroad, and which is extracted from an original 
letter now in our possession : 

" For some days past there have been inserted 
in several of the papers various pretended extracts 
of letters from Milan, Munich, and other places, 
respecting the Princess of Wales, and giving a 
most erroneous statement of an a£Fair that occurred 
some months since in her Royal Highness's family. 
You may depend upon the following, as being an 
authentic narrative of the transaction alluded to. 
A Hanoverian baron was observed to follow the 
princess's route wherever she went. He was 
always received by her Royal Highness with the 
attentions due to his rank. On the princess's re- 
turn to Milan from her long voyage, the baron was 
still there, and paid his respects to her Royal 
Highness as usual ; but reports having come to 
the ears of her household, that the baron had 
made use of expressions in society highly injurious 
to her Royal Highness, one of the gentlemen in 


her suite, an English officer, sent the baron a 
challenge, and this conveyed, in terms too plain 
and unequivocal to be misconstrued, that he ac- 
cused him of <a most infamous and immanly 
return for the kindnesses he had received from 
her Ro)ral Highness,' and called upon him to 
'meet him at eight o'clock the next morning at 
Bartassima (half-way between Milan and Como), 
ther6 to answer for this sacred charge against his 
honour as a gentleman and a man, who had ever 
received the most marked hospitality at the hands 
of the princess, and who had committed the 
greatest act of hostility against the very first 
of virtues.' 

"This challenge was delivered to the baron by 
the hands of the Baron Cavalotti, a friend of the 
English officer. The answer to this direct chal- 
lenge was an attempt to explain away the charge 
imputed to him; but an acceptance of the chal- 
lenge, claiming his right to the choice of weapons, 
and saying that he would fight in Switzerland, 
but that his intended second was absent ; in two 
days he would send him to settle the time and 

"Just at this period, a discharged servant of her 
Royal Highness wrote a letter to the chief magis- 
trate of Como, saying that his conscience touched 
him, and that he was desirous of making a confes- 
sion of the part he had acted in a treacherous 
confederacy with the Hanoverian, in whose pay he 


had been for the preceding ten months, to disclose 
to him every transaction of the household, to 
procure false keys to her Royal Highness's 
apartments and drawers, etc. This was made 
known to her Royal Highness. She treated all 
that he could have obtained by such insidious 
means with contempt ; and actually took the foot- 
man, who had thus acted as a spy upon her 
actions, again into her service, on his imploring 
her pardon ; but another accomplice was delivered 
over to the police, to be tried and punished. 

"The very next day after this discovery her 
Royal Highness gave a grand entertainment, at 
which the Governor of Milan and all the principal 
nobility were present. When the princess com- 
municated the whole affair to the governor, he 
expressed his indignation at the scandalous con- 
duct, and having learnt that a challenge had 
passed from one of her gentlemen to the baron, 
said that certainly that person was unworthy to 
be treated as a gentleman. The Hanoverian 
knew nothing of all this; but, according to his 
promise, sent Count Cantenogh, one of the cham- 
berlains to the Austrian emperor, to Como, who, 
having met the British officer, said he was not 
much acquainted with the Hanoverian, who had 
requested him to be his second in an affair of 
honour; that he was anxious to have the matter 
fully investigated; and trusted that, if the baron 
should prove his innocence of the language 


imputed to him, the British officer would be 
satisfied that he had acted hastily. But, in case 
he was not satisfied, he was further instructed to 
say that the baron wished the meeting to be in 
Germany, on the confines of France, instead of 
Switzerland, and time could not be convenient to 
him sooner than three weeks, a month, or more, 
from that time, as he had to go to Hanover to 
settle his affairs in the interim. The Englishman 
then related to Count Cantenogh the disclosures 
that had been made the day before, and submitted 
to him whether such behaviour did not render his 
principal unworthy the support of a man of hon- 
our, or to be met as a gentleman. The count 
declared that he could not be the second of such 
a person ; that he must justify himself from this 
infamous charge, or choose another friend. With 
this, the count returned to Milan, and a message 
was soon after delivered to her Royal Highness, 
from the governor, to say that the Hanoverian 
baron had received orders to quit the Austrian 
dominions, which he had accordingly done. 

"This curious affair made a considerable noise 
at the time, which was the beginning of November 
last, and is, we suppose, the foundation of the 
stories which have ^lately been circulated and mis- 

"In the summer of 1815 another wicked secret 
plot was formed against the princess, the origin of 
which it is not difficult to guess. The princess 


was narrowly watched^ and attempts were made to 
seduce her people ; but only one, Piqueur Grade, 
was so weak as to yield, and to promise Baron 

O to conduct him into the apartments of the 

princess by means of false keys. The plot was, 
however, discovered, and the piqueur turned away. 
The man wrote to the Chevalier Tommassia, con- 
fessed that he had let himself be seduced by 

Baron O to betray his mistress, and begged 

for mercy. The princess thought it proper to 
acquaint the governor, Count Sawrau, with this 

event, and Baron O was forced to leave the 

dominions of his Majesty the emperor. Hown- 
ham, the princess's private secretary, challenged 
the baron, but the latter has hitherto put it off. 
Since this affair, the princess is very cautious, 
particularly toward Englishmen whom she does not 
know ; but she conceals herself from nobody, only 
she will not be the object of calumny, and of a 
shameful espionage, of which she has already been 
the victim. What has happened gives ground to 
fear still greater enormities. 

"An event, which took place at Genoa, has 
more the appearance of an attempt at assassina- 
tion than robbery. Some armed men penetrated, 
during the night, into the house of the princess, 
and almost into her bedchamber. An alarm being 
given, one of the servants fired upon these people, 
and pursued them, but in vain. It is not yet dis- 
covered what were their intentions. But let a veil 


cover all this. Her first master of the horse, 
Schiaviniy has kept a circumstantial account of her 
joiuTiey to the Holy Land. The princess went 
from Genoa to the island of Elba, thence to Sicily 
and Barbary, then to Palestine. She visited Jeru- 
salem, Athens, etc., and was everywhere received 
with the honours due to her rank. 

" By the assistance of several literati, she ob- 
tained a collection of valuable antiquities, for which 
object she spared no expense. Wherever the 
princess appeared, she left behind her grateful 
recollections by her beneficence. At Tunis, she 
obtained the freedom of several slaves. The prin- 
cess is now employed in writing the history of her 
life, which she will make public when the time 

"By this, she will throw great light on many 
facts which are now involved in obscurity." 

We need hardly offer a remark upon the vindic- 
tive measures, so fully set forth in this narrative, 
exercised against the unfortunate Princess of Wales. 
It will not be difficult for our readers to recognise 
the real instigators of the many annoyances she 
endured ; their names will be handed down to future 
generations as the "Oppressors of Innocence/' 
while the finger of scorn will mark the spot where 
lies their " sordid dust." 

The calamitous situation of the nation at this 
time became truly appalling. Subscriptions were 
entered into for the purpose of relieving the dis- 


tresses of the poor, and her Majesty's name was 
put down for the insignificant sum of three hun- 
dred pounds. If we were to be prolix in our 
account of this German lady's discretionary liber- 
ality, the details, we fear, would not interest our 
readers. She was only liberal when her own inter- 
est was at stake. 


The Qaeen Indisposed — Princess Charlotte and the People — 
The Da3rs of Chivalry Unfortunately Are Past — Power Dis- 
guised as Piety — Death of the Princess — The News Spread 
Abroad — Irritable Remarks — The Waters of Bath — Bul- 
letin of a Last Sickness — Doctor Sims — The Public Journals 
Demand an Investigation — A Letter Causes Trouble — Med- 
ical Criticism — The Queen Grants an Interview — An Inter- 
esting Conversation — A Wielder of the Two-edged Sword 
of Truth. 

ARLY in 1 8 17 the queen became indis- 
posed, so much so as to cause alarm 
amongst her partisans for the issue. It 
was deemed expedient that the prince regent, who 
was then at Brighton, should be informed of the 
circumstance, and the Duke of York set ofiF in the 
night to convey the intelligence to him. Why a 
courier could not have been forwarded, we do not 
pretend to say ; but deception and mystery always 
attended the royal movements. Shortly afterward, 
however, her Majesty was declared convalescent, 
and the family were gratified by her recovery, 
being well assured that her assistance would be 
of the most essential consequence to the com- 
pletion of the regent's wishes in the intended 




In February, the "Habeas Corpus Act" was 
suspended, and, upon suspicion only, were Mr. 
Evans and his son seized and committed to prison 
on a charge of treason. They observed at the 
time, with great truth, " Poor devoted England ! 
she cannot be called our country, but our grave ! " 
This was confirmed by Lord Sidmouth, who ren- 
dered his every service in this disgraceful business, 
and was at all imaginable pains to prove that his 
master, the regent, was the " Vicegerent of heaven, 
and had all power upon earth." 

The country was now elated by the information 
that the Princess Charlotte was likely to give an 
heir to the throne ; because the people hoped that 
her progeny would prove more worthy of a crown 
than some of the sons of her austere grandmother. 
Upon this amiable princess, indeed, the English 
people had long placed their hopes, and they lived 
in anxious expectation to see the then existing 
tyranny superseded by a better form of govern- 
ment, under her auspices. In the meantime, every 
member of the royal family appeared more inter- 
ested for the health of the queen than for the 
Princess Charlotte. Her Majesty had experienced 
several relapses ; but, after each attack, when she 
appeared in public, no symptoms of previous indis- 
position were visible. 

Lords Liverpool, Castlereagh, and Sidmouth, and 
the accommodating George Canning, were now the 
arbiters of the fates of nations ; their will was no 


sooner expressed than it passed into a law; and 
while revelling at the festive board with their puis- 
sant prince, the country was writhing in the most 
pitiable condition. Even bread and water were not 
always within the poor man's grasp, and the starved 
peasantry of Ireland, in open defiance of military 
power, were living by stealing and eating raw 
potatoes, to enable them to eke out their most 
miserable existence. Under this humiliating con- 
dition, their rights and liberties were suspended, 
and it was made "treason and sedition" to mur- 
mur or complain. 

When the tyrannicsd King John oppressed hb 
subjects, and endeavoured to usurp despotic power, 
the barons assembled around him, and, unsheathing 
their swords, swore, "The laws of England shall 
not be changed ! " But the days of chivalry were 
past. Lord Castlereagh was now our dictator, and 
a standing army of one hundred and forty thousand 
men, to enforce his vile and unconstitutional meas- 
ures, destroyed even the chance of emancipation. 
We may add, in the words of our immortal bard, 
that his lordship was a man, 

« Ay, and a bold one, that dare look on that 
Which might appal the devil ! " 

The galling distresses of the people, at this period 
of national calamity and misrule, drove them to the 
commission of violent acts, and the diligence of 
well-chosen officers and prosecutors, with the par- 


tiality of judges, supplied the defect of evidence 
needful for punishment. The law was actually 
made a snare, while vice received encouragement 
and rewards, when on the side of the oppressors. 
This was not solely confined to the higher tri- 
bunals, but was also apparent in almost every 
inferior court. Indeed, Lord Sidmouth sent a cir- 
cular letter to all lieutenants of counties, recom- 
mending even "justices of the peace to hold to 
bail persons publishing alleged libels." The whole 
ministry proved themselves to be iminfiuenced by 
the dictates of equity, or those principles of mod- 
eration which distinguished some of our noble 
ancestors. Power was everything with Castlereagh 
and his associates, assisted by the mitred heads of 
the "established church," who were ever his zeal- 
ous friends in the cause of tyranny. Be it, then, 
our duty to tear the mask of hypocrisy aside, and 
exhibit the deformity of power, more especially 
when disguised under the specious form of piety. 
He who can assume the sanctity of a saint, and 
perform the deeds of a ruffian, will not be spared 
in our explanations of truth. The title of " Right 
Reverend Father in God " shall not cause us to be 
dismayed, if, by their reverend works, they prove 
themselves to be the children of the devil. We are 
not what pretended pious people term infidels ; but 
we detest to see the tools of power endeavour to 
subdue the nation in the garb of godliness, insulting 
the poor with orders for "general fasts," while 


they themselves are indulging in the most riotous 

We must nowy as honest and fearless historians, 
record the most cold-blooded and horrible crime 
that was ever perpetrated in this or any other 
Christian country. 

*< 'Tis a strange truth. O monstrous act ! 
'Twill out, *twill out ! — I hold my peace, sir ? no : 
No, I will speak as liberal as the air ! " 

We are almost ready to murmur at Providence 
for permitting some of the assassins to escape 
from this world without meeting the punishment 
they merited. One or two, however, still remain 
to pollute the earth, and upon whom we yet hope 
to see justice administered. 

Every honest heart was full of bitterness and 
anguish, when it was announced, "The Princess 
Charlotte is dead ! " The heavy-tolling bell, the 
silence of the streets, and the mute astonishment 
of all who met and parted, exhibited signs of 
unfeigned sorrow. In an unexpected moment, 
the hopes of this great nation were brought to 
nought. Her Royal Highness was England's star 
of promise, — the beacon which it was expected 
would light the traveller to escape the quicksands 
of destruction. 

On the sth of November, at nine in the even- 
ing, this exemplary princess was safely delivered 
of a male child, said to be still-bom ; and although 


pronounced at that time, by her accoucheur, to 
be doing extremely well, yet, at half-past two 
on the morning of the 6th, her Royal Highness 
expired. Sir Richard Croft announced to Prince 
Leopold the heartrending intelligence ; and a 
messenger was instantly sent to the prince regent 
(to whom a former communication of fearful im- 
port had been made) and also to the queen at 
Bath. All the roysd family then in England 
hastened to London, report said, "nearly de- 
stroyed with grief." 

Special messengers were also despatched with 
the melancholy information to the Duke of Kent, 
who was at Brussels, and to the Duke of Cam- 
bridge, at Hanover; but the mother of the late 
princess was entirely neglected. Etiquette and 
respect were attended to in the cases which least 
required notice, and omitted in the situation which 
really demanded, in common decency and justice, 
the most prompt consideration. 

The prince regent arrived at Carlton House 
at four o'clock on the fatal morning, and was in- 
formed by Lord Bathurst and the Duke of York 
of the event. The regent had been, for ten or 
twelve days, sojourning with the Marquis, or Mar- 
chioness, of Hertford, at their seat near Sudbury. 
In contradiction to several either servile or igno- 
rant historians, we fearlessly say that it was not 
unexpected news to his royal ear. In the course 
of the ensuing day, a letter was written and 


delivered to Dr. Sir Richard Croft, announcing 
the prince regent's offer of thanks for the atten- 
tion paid to the Princess Charlotte, and assuring 
the doctor that the prince was fully satisfied with 
his skill and superior merit ; concluding with these 
words : " As it is the will of Divine Providence, 
his Royal Highness is in duty bound to submit 
to the decree — of Heaven." 

Prince Leopold was not so hasty in returning 
his thanks for the attentions of Doctor Croft, 
though much better able to judge of the matter 
than the regent ; for he was many miles off, 
and could not personally know anything of the 

Notwithstanding the professed deep sorrow and 
grief of the prince regent, however, we can an- 
nounce that his Royal Highness did not permit 
himself to relax in any pursuit of pleasure, except 
that of openly exhibiting himself; for, on the 
ensuing evening, we ourselves were not very dis- 
tant from Carlton House, and can testify to this 
fact. He and his brother of York were not 
in very great anguish upon the occasion ; they 
pledged each other in quick succession, until the 
circumstance which had caused their meeting was 
entirely forgotten by them. " I drink to the safety 
of the regent," said the duke, "and I to the safety 
of York/' retorted the prince. These remarks 
created irritability, and the prince very warmly 
replied, to an interrogation of his brother, " What 


would you think if the ghost of Edward Augustus 
stood at your elbow ? " 

How very dififerent was the report issued to the 
world ! The daily papers stated that " the extreme 
sorrow of the regent had produced an unusual 
sensation of pain in the head of his Royal High- 
ness.'* We were not surprised at this announce- 
ment ; though we had hoped to have heard the 
royal heart was affected upon a review of his 
past enormities. 

We regret to say that, when the Princess Char- 
lotte was in daily expectation of her accouchement, 
she was not soothed by the attentions of any of 
her female relatives. It is true they had not, by 
any former acts of kindness, given her occasion to 
expect it ; but the disrespect shown to her Royal 
Highness was chiefly owing to the affection for, 
and defence of, her persecuted mother, which, 
though perfectly natural and praiseworthy, dis- 
pleased certain high and powerful personages. 
The queen (that boasted paragon of goodness!) 
was one hundred and eight miles distant, and the 
hearts of all the family seemed as if estranged 
from virtuous and honourable feelings. Her Maj- 
esty, with the Princess Elizabeth, left Windsor 
Castle for Bath, on the morning of the 3d of 
October, for the avowed purpose of drinking the 
waters. On the 27th of the same month, the 
prince regent, accompanied by Sir B. Bloomfield, 
left London for the seat of the Marquis of Hert- 


ford, at Sudbury, in Sufifolk. The Duke of Clar- 
ence was also absent. It is true that the cabinet 
ministers, whose presence was required by prece- 
dent and state necessity, were in waiting ; but how 
far their services could be agreeable or beneiicisd 
to a young female in such a situation, we are at a 
loss to discover. Alas! that parent who ought 
to have been present, and who would most joy- 
fully have flown on the wings of maternal affec- 
tion, was denied the privilege. But while the 
<laughter was struggling in the agonies of a cruel 
death, the mother was a wanderer in a foreign 
land, and beset with snares laid for her destruction 

During the pregnancy of the Princess Char- 
lotte, the prince, her husband, was chiefly her 
companion. Her choice of an accoucheur fell 
upon Dr. Sir Richard Croft, as he was con- 
sidered the most able and skilful man in the pro- 
fession. The ladies in attendance upon her Royal 
Highness were unfit to render advice or assistance 
upon any emergency, as neither of them had been a 
mother. The princess, when in an advanced state 
of pregnancy, was kept low, and scarcely allowed 
animal food, or wine, to both of which she had 
previously been accustomed. Between the fifth 
and seventh months, her Royal Highness was bled 
several times, and still kept upon very low diet. 
Claremont, the place chosen for the eventful 
period, was sixteen miles from town, and when 


any pressing occasion required the attendance of 
a surgeon or physician from London, the distance 
caused a considerable delay. Her Roysd High- 
nesses confinement was expected to take place 
about the end of October, and the period be- 
tween that time and the final issue was strongly 
marked by symptoms of approaching labour. 
Her Royal Highness was in extreme pain for 
more than forty-eight hours, yet each bulletin 
declared, "The princess is doing extremely well." 
At half-past twelve a. m. her Royal Highness 
became uneasy and very restless ; she exhibited 
much difficulty of breathing, and at half-past two 
— expired. 

The substance of this detail found its way into 
the daily journals, and excited, as it was naturally 
calculated to do, much remark and inquiry. The 
generally received opinion was, that the lamented 
heiress to the crown had been wantonly suffered 
to perish, from the folly of etiquette, or some 
other unnatural and unexplained cause. We, how- 
ever, are not bound to surrender our judgment to 
a journalist, or to subscribe to the opinion of any 
man less acquainted with a particular subject than 
ourselves ; and, upon this melancholy and tragicsd 
event, therefore, we shall dare to give utterance 
to truth. In doing so, we beg to state that we 
are not influenced by personal resentment, but, in 
the discharge of our task, are determined only to 
award "honour where honour is due." 


The labour of the princess was commenced 
under extreme debility, and at an early period it 
appeared very probable that surgical assistance 
would be finally requisite, yet no provision was 
made for such assistance. The bulletin of 
Wednesday morning, eight o'clock, signed by 
the attending practitioners, was rather doubtfully 
expressed. The second bulletin, at ten in the 
evening, was confidently affirmative of the well- 
doing of the royal patient. Doctor Sims affixed 
his signature to these bulletins, but he had not 
seen her Royal Highness since the first pang she 
had experienced. How this gentleman could 
allow his name to be thus affixed to a declara- 
tion of the truth of which he was totally ignorant, 
we know not ; but it was said, by the time-serving 
press, "that Doctor Sims being unknown to the 
princess, his appearance in her chamber might 
have alarmed her." The folly of this excuse is 
best exposed by supposing that if, at this trying 
moment, Doctor Croft had been ill, and unfit to 
attend the princess, would she have been left to 
perish for lack of assistance ? We think not ; 
for this would have given too plain an idea of the 
expectations of certain parties. The public papers 
announced that the letter summoning Doctor 
Sims to Claremont was written on Tuesday morn- 
ing* y^t he did not arrive until Wednesday morn- 
ing at three o'clock. It was further stated that 
the nurse discovered the dreadful change in her 


Royal Highness by the difficulty manifested in 
swallowing her gruel, and that she was so alarmed 
by this appearance of spasm that she immediately 
called the faculty out of their beds, as well as 
Prince Leopold. Another journalist stated a con- 
trary case, but we know that, although some 
beverage was administered to the princess, it was 
not gruel ; for her Royal Highness had a great 
aversion to gruel, and could never be prevailed on 
to take it. Soon after her Royal Highness took 
the liquid, she was afflicted in a most unusual way, 
though only for a short time. The low state of 
muscular strength to which the princess had grad- 
ually been reduced, certainly required greater 
nourishment than was given to her, and in this 
professional treatment, therefore, the accoucheur 
acted unwisely as well as unskilfully, to say the 
least of it. That most eminent practitioner. Doc- 
tor Thynne, made it an invariable rule, after a 
protracted birth, to revive the mother by giving a 
teaspoonful of egg, beat up with wine, from time 
to time. The symptoms of not being able to 
swallow, and the convulsive action of the body, 
were plainly indicative of a dying patient, but the 
real cause of the patient's dying was then a mys- 
tery, except to two or three individuals. 

The public journals of the day called loudly 
upon the gentlemen who attended the Princess 
Charlotte, as her accoucheurs, to give all facility 
for an investigation of their whole mode of treat- 



ment, adding that " if they be conscious that they 
have acquitted themselves well, they will have no 
objection to an investigation of their conduct, and 
cannot consider themselves placed in a worse situ- 
ation than the captain of a king's ship, who, in the 
event of the loss of his vessel, is obliged to 
undergo a trial by court martial." To this and 
similar appeals the ministers promptly replied, 
"that it was impossible, after the prince regent 
had been pleased to express his approbation and 
award his thanks, as it would seem to reflect upon 
the prince, who alone was endowed with the sov- 
ereign power to act in the case." This royal cant 
phraseology, however, failed to lull suspicion, for 
the attending circumstances were of a nature too 
horrible to be buried in oblivion. If all had been 
correct, why refuse inquiry, particularly when it 
was solicited by nine-tenths of the nation ? 

The queen left Bath on Saturday, the 8th of 
November, and arrived at Windsor in the evening. 
The next day the prince regent went from Carlton 
House to Windsor to see the queen ; but the pri- 
vacy of the visit did not permit it to be of long 
duration. We are able to give the particulars of 
this interview. 

Her Majesty's mind had been disturbed by the 
receipt of a letter, from a medical gentleman, upon 
the subject of the untimely death of the Princess 
Charlotte. No time was to be lost. The prince 
was requested immediately to see his royal mother ; 


and, on his arrival, her Majesty presented him with 
the letter, the contents of which proved, beyond 
doubt, that the writer had been an eye-witness to 
some particular events connected with the dissolu- 
tion of the much lamented and tenderly beloved 

The letter commenced with the most respectful 
dedication to royalty, and prayed for an extra ex- 
tension of candour and patience by her Majesty, 
while the facts of which it was composed were 
examined and duly considered. The writer then 
proceeded : " I am perfectly satisfied your Majesty 
could not be personally aware of the case, because 
of the distance your Majesty then was from Clare- 
mont ; but I submit it to your Majesty's good feel- 
ing and judgment, if the particulars attendant upon 
this most lamentable loss ought not immediately 
to be most strictly inquired into. Refusal to do 
this, or to permit it being done, will only aggra- 
vate the matter, instead of setting the question at 
rest for ever. The public well know that all was 
not as it ought to have been, — that something had 
been n^lected, or imprudently attempted, that 
ought to have received a widely different atten- 
tion. As a proof that I do not intrude my re- 
marks and remonstrances improperly, or without 
information upon the nicest points of the case, 
I will give reasons for my dissatisfaction. From 
the first moment Sir Richard Croft was placed in 
attendance upon her Royal Highness, there was 


no reason to anticipate or fear any unhappy results. 
The natural appearances were unequivocally satis- 
factory. Previous to the delivery, the infant was 
not supposed to be dead. It was quite unneces- 
sary and unnatural to inform the princess that the 
child was still-born ; such a communication is very 
seldom made to any female at such a moment. 
Camphor juleps are very seldom administered to 
a healthy patient, or where the stomach is sound, 
immediately after delivery, as the effect would gen- 
erally be to produce irritation, sickness, and con- 
vulsion. Doctor Croft ought not to have retired 
to bed, presuming that her Royal Highness was so 
indisposed as to cause her incessant moaning, which 
was really the case. More than this, your Maj- 
esty, about noon of the Wednesday, Doctor Croft 
said, * I believe the princess might very quickly be 
delivered by having recourse to an operation ; but 
I dare not perform it without the presence and 
sanction of her royal father, the prince regent/ 
I hope** (continued the writer) "that your Majesty 
will see this plain statement in its own character, 
and that you will save all future disclosures of an 
unpleasant nature by your timely recommendation 
of the subject to the prince regent, your son. Your 
Majesty may believe I am induced by vindictive 
motives to offer these remarks ; but that would 
prove an incorrect opinion, and, unless your* Maj- 
esty causes a very prompt inquiry to be per- 
mitted upon the facts of this case, I fear yourself 


and family will finally have cause to regret the 

The prince was much displeased that any sub- 
ject should have dared to take such a liberty as to 
speak or write an unpleasant truth to any of his 
noble family, — more especially to the queen. It 
was an unpardonable transgression ; yet, as the 
gentleman had given his name and address, it was 
a very delicate affair. The queen had so often 
witnessed the prostration of the multitudes of 
fashion's votaries, that she imagined much might 
be accomplished by commanding an interview, and 
subduing the voice of inquiry and truth by the 
splendour of pageantry, and the intoxicating smile 
of royalty. By her Majesty's command, therefore, 
an interview took place. With her general air of 
confidence, the queen said, "I presume, sir, you 
are the author of this letter?" "I am, please 
your Majesty." " And what," said the queen, 
" am I to understand from such an unaccountable 
appeal to me and my family .? " "I beg your Maj- 
esty's pardon personally, as well as previously by 
letter, but I deemed it my duty to inform your 
Majesty of my information upon the subject in 
question, and I am very sorry if your Majesty 
does not think it necessary to have the most 
prudent means used to satisfy the public inquiry." 
The queen was very gracious, and smiling, said, 
" I will name your good intentions to the prince 
regent, and I will not forget them myself; but 


I can satisfy you that your opinions upon the 
subject of your communication to me are incor- 
rect." The gentleman rose, and was about to 
retire ; but the queen had not attained her object. 
Her Majesty, therefore, hastily said, ** I trust you 
are convinced of the impropriety of your former 
opinions ? " " No, please your Majesty, I never 
can change my opinions upon this subject until 
I lose my principles, and I trust sincerely that I 
shall never endure such a humiliation while I re- 
tain my reason. But," added the gentleman, 
"your Majesty must be well assured that I am 
acquainted with the greater portion of your fam- 
ily; yea, very intimately acquainted, not indeco- 
rously so, but in the discharge of my professional 
engagements. Your Majesty well knows that I 
saw the lamented Princess Charlotte just before 
the unhappy event, and also am not ignorant of 
the constitution of your Majesty's daughters. I 
therefore am bold to assert that the death of her 
Royal Highness was not, and is not to be, natu- 
rally accounted for. It is true that I am not known 
to the world in the capacity of accoucheur to your 
family, but your Majesty knows I have been your 
trusty and confidential servant upon more occa- 
sions than one, and I am now resolved to relin- 
quish the royal favour, if it must be purchased at 
such an unknown expense." 

The queen retired, and so did the heartstricken 
gentleman; but their ruminations and consequent 

(Jhui<)lli\ (JjiCiii of hji^Lind 

Pln>r.)-a-.'l'.iii.i t:«un the ixii'Uinc by Sir Willi;im 



determinations were very dissimilar. Her Majesty 
was endeavouring to evade explanation ; the gen- 
tleman, meditating upon the most prudent plan 
for adoption to put a period to the agitated feel* 
ings of the public. 

The reader may imagine that this professional 
person had been previously selected to render his 
services to some members of this illustrious family, 
which was actually the case. He had travelled 
more than twenty miles in the royal carriage, and 
had performed the most delicate offices. He 
knew royalty was not exempt from frailty, and that 
rank did not preserve its possessors from the com- 
mission of crime. Denial of this would prove 
abortive, for the gentleman lives, and would, if 
called upon, assert the same even at the expense 
of life. He does not fear the interdiction of a 
crowned head ; neither would he shrink under 
"a special commission." He wields the two-edged 
sword of truth, and therefore defies the strong 
arm of power. He has seen enough of the wily 
snares of courtiers, and has retired from the un- 
hallowed association with feelings of disgust, con- 
tempt, and detestation. The adulation of the 
parasites of royalty is odious to his ear ; and, to 
save the increasing stings of an offended con- 
science, he is now publicly explicit upon this 
hateful subject. Despising secrecy and infamy, he 
openly avows enmity to such characters as are 
leagued against the peace and happiness of sod- 


ety ; and their intentions to perpetuate their 
unjust, partial, and devastating system must be 
checked by the information of those persons who 
are privy to the cause, as well as to the effects, of 
their overgrown power. 


A Royal Visit — A Burial — Mrs. Giiffiths's Secret — A Poisoned 
Cup — A Lieutenant's Wife Intervenes — Resultant — A 
Spy — An Investigation at Milan — 1818 and Taxation — 
Parliament Opens — The Words of Tartufife — Horses for a 
Phantom Driver — Another Violent Death — Due to " Tem- 
porary Derangement'* — Lord Bloomfield — The Duke of 
Kent Is Married — Queen Charlotte at Death's Door — A 
False and Inconsistent Eulogium — Burial. 


I HE day after this unpleasant interview 
the queen paid a visit to the king ; and, 
as nearly two months had elapsed since 
her Majesty visited her husband, it was productive 
of great anxiety on the part of the royal sufferer. 
The daily papers stated that "his Majesty was 
much improved, and very tranquil, in consequence 
of the queen having paid him a visit." Does not 
this neglect of the poor afflicted king reflect dis- 
grace upon her Majesty? The wife who forgets 
her duty to the man she has espoused is unde- 
serving the respect of society. Who was Queen 
Charlotte, that the eyes of the public should be 
blinded, or their tongues mute, upon this apathy 
and unfeeling demeanour to the king, her husband, 
who had raised her from comparative poverty to 
affluence and greatness ? Had similar inattention 



been manifested by the wife of a peasant, her 
neighbour's reproach would not have been want- 
ing; but every one seemed afraid of impugning 
the character of a queen, so celebrated for ami- 
ability and virtue ! A few days after the inter- 
ment of the Princess Charlotte and her infant, the 
queen again went off for the city of Bath, and 
we assert, without fear of contradiction, that her 
Majesty's eye was never observed to be dim upon 
this most melancholy occasion. Let the world 
judge if such unfeeling deportment agreed with 
her Majesty's reported sorrow. 

On the 19th of November, the Princess Char- 
lotte and her infant were consigned to the tomb. 
The Dukes of York and Clarence were supporters 
to the chief mourner, Prince Leopold ; and, after 
the ostentatious parade of funeral pomp, they 
retired without much appearance of sorrow. It 
was said that a king, or prince invested with royal 
power, could not attend the ceremony, or join in 
the cavalcade of a funeral. The regent, therefore, 
was not present at the closing scene of his child's 
hard destiny. But royalty has many privileges 
distinct from the common herd of mankind. It 
must not, for instance, reside in the same habita- 
tion with a corpse, lest its delicately refined nerves 
should sustain injury, or be excited to an extreme 
point of agony. 

The body of the unfortunate Charlotte was 
reported to have been embalmed, but the heart 


only was extracted; the intestines were not re- 
moved. This was an unprecedented circumstance, 
as upon all former occasions this barbarous custom 
had been permitted. The surgeon who accom- 
panied Prince Leopold from Germany was solicited 
to say why this form had been omitted ; and his 
suspicious reply was, "Neither now, nor at any 
future time, shall any power on earth induce me to 
speak one word upon the subject." He was then 
requested to give into the hand of Prince Leopold 
a sealed letter upon the subject ; this he also 
positively refused to do, adding, at the same time, 
"The prince would not receive it." Very shortly 
afterward, a letter was conveyed into the prince's 
hand, offering " to communicate certain facts rela- 
tive to the demise of the late princess, his consort, 
if he pleased to express his willingness to receive 
the same." His Serene Highness never paid 
attention to that letter. 

It was said, at the time of her Royal Highnesses 
death, that Prince Leopold was so angry with the 
nurse (Mrs. Griffiths) that he turned her out of 
the house, without permitting her to stay to attend 
the funeral. One thing, however, is certain, that 
she has several sons in different public offices. To 
one of these, her favourite, she said (when labour- 
ing under the effects of a dreadful illness she had 
shortly after the princess's death), " I have never 
kept but one horrid secret from you, which has 
always weighed upon my mind ; but I cannot com- 


municate it, unless I am sure of death the next 

This Mrs. Griffiths certainly knows more about 
the death of her late royal mistress than she has 
yet thought proper to communicate; though, in 
one of her moments of compunction, she confessed 
to a friend of ours that the Princess Charlotte had 
actually been poisoned, and related the way in 
which she found it out. Mrs. Griffiths stated 
that, " after giving her Royal Highness some broth 
(not gruel) she became dreadfully convulsed ; and, 
being struck with the peculiarity of the circum- 
stance, she examined the cup from which her 
Royal Highness had drunk. To her astonishment, 
she there perceived a dark red sediment, upon 
tasting which, her tongue became blistered ! " Mrs. 
Griffiths immediately asked Doctor Croft what he 
had administered to the princess; but she re- 
ceived no satisfactory answer. A few hours after 
this, however, the doctor said sufficient to prove 
that the princess had been murdered. As Mrs. 
Griffiths is now alive, we challenge her to deny this 
statement, if incorrect. 

The lamented princess was treated most cruelly 
by all around her, and one of the higher house- 
hold asserted that he believed her Royal Highness 
was left ** two hours in the agonies of death, with- 
out any person going near her.*' Mrs. Lewis, 
her waiting-woman, has denied this statement ; 
but it is well known that Mrs. Lewis was placed 


as a spy about her Royal Highness even from her 

The last time the prince regent was at Clare- 
mont, not long before the princess's confinement, 
a most respectable gentleman heard him say, " A 
child of the Princess Charlotte shall never sit upon 
the throne." Did not this speak volumes as to 
her intended destruction } Surely no one can 
doubt, after these disclosures, that the Princess 
Charlotte fell a victim to a vile conspiracy. 

The murder of the Princess Charlotte proved 
the signal for letting loose the hounds of destruc- 
tion upon her heart-broken mother. On the 
second day after her Majesty's return to Bath, a 
lady had a private audience with her. The object 
of the interview was to offer the services of her 
husband (an officer in the navy) in the impeach- 
ment and intended destruction of the honour of 
the Princess of Wales. " What situation does the 
person occupy } " said the queen. " He is a lieu- 
tenant, please your Majesty." "What would be 
deemed a sufficient recompense for his attentions ?" 
said her Majesty. " Your Majesty's good opinion 
is all my husband aspires to," said the lady ; and, 
after a few unmeaning expressions of civility, she 
retired. Lord Liverpool was consulted, and gave 
his opinion that the person in question could not 
be implicitly relied on ; and a messenger was 
therefore sent to the gentleman, according to the 
address left by his wife, declining the offered ser- 


vice, and stating that "her Majesty had no un- 
kind or ungenerous feelings toward the Princess 
of Wales, and had quite misunderstood the ofiFer, 
having supposed it to be made under very opposite 
circumstances." The lady was recommended to 
the queen's notice by Lord Castlereagh, though 
doubts were entertained whether the lieutenant 
might be trusted, as he was believed to be anti- 

We here relate another fact, relative to the 
Princess of Wales's persecutors : A certain per- 
sonage sought for an interview with an individual 
whom we will disguise under the name of Captain 
Rock. "Well," said his Royal Highness to the 
captain, " I wish to engage your services ; you are 
well acquainted with Italy ; we expect the Princess 
of Wales will be at Pisa in about three months, 
and as you have served us before, we suppose you 
will have no objection to do so again ; you shall 
not want for cash." The offer was accepted, and 
his Royal Highness wrote this offer upon paper, 
and a sum was advanced on the evening of the 
same day. This mean slave of power departed ; 
but, before following the instructions of his royal 
employer, went off to London, and communicated 
to Lord Castlereagh his mission, requiring five 
hundred pounds more, declaring the written prom- 
ise should strictly be enforced, as he had been a 
loser by his former services. The amount de- 
manded was given. " I assure you, my lord," said 



the captain, " I will execute my commission well ; 
but I must also be paid well." Lord Castlereagh 
assented, and this unmanly spy took his leave of 
England to wait the expected arrival of the prin- 
cess at Pisa. 

These proceedings against her Royal Highness 
soon manifested themselves in a commission being 
appointed at Milan ; and rumours were circulated 
in this country that her conduct was at variance 
with propriety. 

Mr. Leech, a Chancery barrister of some emi- 
nence, and who was subsequently elevated to the 
situation of vice-chancellor, and is now master of 
the rolls ; Mr. Cook, also a barrister, and a writer 
of great eminence on the subject of bankruptcy ; 
Mr. Powell, a gentleman of private fortune and 
connected with the court ; a Colonel Brown, the 
impropriety of whose conduct met with general 
disapprobation ; and Lord Stewart, the cowardly 
lordling who had repeatedly vilified the character of 
the princess, and had even personally insulted her, 
were selected as the individuals proper to conduct 
an inquiry into the character and conduct of her 
Royal Highness, during her residence on the Con- 
tinent. To Milan they repaired. A person by 
the name of Vimercati was selected as the Italian 
agent. Colonel Brown was stationed to assist him. 
Salaries were of course attached to their respect- 
ive offices, and each individual had his post as- 
signed him. Vimercati was invested with the 


greater part of the management of this a£Fair, and 
the nature of his conduct and proceedings cannot 
but excite mingled feelings of surprise and horror. 

By this commission, witnesses were first ob- 
tained, then examined, and reexamined; exorbi- 
tant prices were offered to them for their testi- 
mony, and threats were made to those who showed, 
or pretended to show, any dislike subsequently to 
appear to verify their statements. Rastelli, after- 
ward a witness, was employed as courier, and to 
him was delegated the all-powerful argument of a 
long purse. Dumont, while in the hands of this 
commission, carried on a correspondence with her 
sister (who was still in the queen's service), through 
the medium of Baron d'Ompteda (the villain we 
mentioned a few pages back), for the purpose of 
obtaining information from her Majesty's servants. 

And Omati was paid by D'Ompteda for stealing 
papers, for the use of the commission, from his 
master, who was her Majesty's professional agent 
at Milan. These are facts proved by witnesses 
whose characters are irreproachable, and whose 
evidence is as well written as parole. 

The year 1818 was a dark and troubled period, 
— a period of great private distress, — so that the 
minds of men were bent with more acerbity than 
usual upon the redress of public grievances. The 
country, borne down by debt, harassed by taxation, 
which had no longer for its excuse a monopoly of 
commerce, looked naturally enough to the source 


from which these calamities had flowed They 
found the theory and the practice of the constitu- 
tion at variance, and hearing they had a right to 
be taxed by their representatives, they thought 
it hard and unjust that over the great majority 
of those who taxed them they had no control 
Retrenchment and economy were what they re- 
quired. They considered parliamentary reform 
would be the means of producing economy and 
retrenchment. Public meetings in favour of par- 
liamentary reform were, therefore, held, resolu- 
tions in favour of it passed, and petitions in favour 
of it presented to the two Houses of Parliament ; 
the energies of a free people were roused, and 
great excitement prevailed. When a country is 
thus agitated, a minister must resist with vigour, 
or yield with grace. Unjust and violent demands 
should be met with resistance, but sober and legit- 
imate requests with concession. When weakly 
opposed, they are obtained by immediate violence ; 
successfully refused, they are put off for a day, or 
postponed for a week or a year ; but they are not 
got rid of. Lord Castlereagh and Mr. Canning, 
however, were vain enough to think otherwise. 

Parliament was opened by commission in Janu- 
ary. The speech referred to the continued indis- 
position of his Majesty, and the death of the 
Princess Charlotte, but without promising an in- 
quiry into the cause of her untimely end. An 
address was voted into the Commons' Houses 



according to custom, though Sir Samuel Romilly 
was not wanting in his expressions of severe oppo- 
sition to the course ministers were pursuing. He 
stated "that the despotic conduct of the ministry 
had produced in the minds of the people a deter- 
mination to withstand any further infringement 
upon their rights and privileges." 

Totally regardless of the sufferings of an over- 
burdened people, however, and during the very 
heavy and calamitous sorrows of the middle and 
lower classes, the chancellor of the exchequer 
had the effrontery to move "that one million of 
money be raised for the purpose of supplying 
the deficiency of places of worship belonging to 
the establishment, by building new churches and 
chapels of ease, where the increase of population 
rendered it needful." How applicable are the 
words of Tartuffe to the advocates of this meas- 
ure! "With one hand, I have encouraged spies, 
suborned perjury, and committed murders; and 
with the other, built churches, — but not with 
my own money.** The bill passed, and an extra 
"plume of worldly-mindedness ** was consequently 
placed in the cap of hypocrisy. Oh, that the 
pure religion of our Saviour should be thus per- 
verted ! His kingdom was not of this world, 
neither did he luxuriate in the "good things ** of the 
earth. Did he wear lawn sleeves and a mitre } Did 
he loll in gaudy carriages, and look down with 
supercilious contempt on his poorer brethren f 


Did he require theatres for his churches, or per- 
fumed divines to preach his gospel ? Did he 
interfere with political matters, and exert his ener- 
gies to enslave the people ? We leave these ques- 
tions to be answered by those locusts of the 
land, commonly called bishops of the established 
Church ; at the same time we call upon them to 
reflect whether, if hereafter they should feel in- 
clined to recall the opportunity of conciliating the 
respect of the country, they will not have the mis- 
fortune of finding it much too late. 

If our readers were to look over the singular 
parliamentary proceedings at this gloomy period 
of our history, they would be forcibly struck with 
the littleness, servility, and the utter want of 
intellectual calibre so fully set forth in the char- 
acters of those who conducted the solemn mockery 
of legislation. The most unjust and arbitrary laws 
were put in force, and the public money allowed 
to be squandered, without the least inquiry. As 
a proof of this last remark, we need only mention 
the fact of ninety thousand pounds being voted 
for the department of the "master of the horse," 
who kept thirty saddle and twenty-eight carriage 
horses for the use of his Majesty, yet the king 
had never been out of the castle, for more than 
seven years. This disgraceful squandering of 
money was carried on, too, when honest citizens 
and affectionate fathers were incapable of provid- 
ing bread for themselves and families. Indeed, 


Lord Liverpool seemed resolved to push the coun- 
try to its utmost verge, by proposing and sanction- 
ing every expensive outlay. He was, with Lords 
Castlereagh and Sidmouth, the author of many 
plans to perplex, impoverish, and subdue the 
people, in which plans the bishops most zealously 
assisted. Every contrivance that had the sanction 
of the queen was sure to be well-managed, till 
Justice herself was set at open defiance. 

Our readers will recollect our former statements 
respecting the Princess Charlotte, and we think 
the circumstance we are now about to relate will 
not operate against the proofs we have adduced 
concerning her untimely end. 

Dr. Sir Richard Croft, the accoucheur of that 
lamented princess, had been engaged to attend 
the lady of the Rev. Doctor Thackeray, at her 
house, 2i6 Wimpole Street, Cavendish Square. Sir 
Richard went there on Monday, the 9th of Feb- 
ruary, and remained in attendance until Thursday 
morning, at eleven o'clock, when, finding his con- 
tinued presence unnecessary, he went out for a 
short time to fulfil his other engagements. An 
apartment on the floor above that occupied by 
Mrs. Thackeray was appointed for the residence 
of Sir Richard. In this chamber there were two 
pistols belonging to Doctor Thackeray, hanging 
within the reach of Doctor Croft. Sir Richard 
retired to bed at half-past twelve, and about one 
Doctor Thackeray heard a noise, apparently pro- 


ceeding from the rcx)m occupied by Doctor Croft, 
and sent a female servant to ascertain the cause ; 
she returned, saying, " The doctor is in bed, and I 
conceive him to be asleep." A short time after, 
a similar noise was heard, and the servant was 
sent again. She rapped at the door, but received 
no answer. This circumstance created alarm ; 
in consequence of which the door of his apart- 
ment was broken open. Here an awful spectacle 
presented itself. The body of Sir Richard was 
lying on the bed, shockingly mangled, his hands 
extended over his breast, and a pistol in each 
hand. One of the pistols had been loaded with 
slugs, the other with ball. Both were discharged, 
and the head of the unfortunate gentleman was 
literally blown to pieces. 

On the inquest. Doctors Latham and Baillie, and 
Mr, Finch, proved that the deceased had, since 
the death of the Princess Charlotte, laboured 
under mental distress. He had frequently been 
heard to say that "this lamentable occurrence 
weighs heavily on my mind, and I shall never get 
over it." Mr. Finch said he was well aware that 
the deceased had been labouring under derange* 
ment of intellect for a considerable time past ; 
and he should not have reposed confidence or 
trust in him on any occasion since the lamented 
catastrophe alluded to. The jury returned a ver- 
dict, "that the deceased destroyed himself while 
in a fit of temporary derangement" 


During the inquest the newspaper reporters 
were denied admission, which circumstance gave 
rise to various rumours of a suspicious tendency. 
This was certainly an unconstitutional act ; but 
we will, as honest historians, speak candidly upon 
the subject. Delicacy to surviving friends must 
not prevent our detail of facts. 

It will appear evident, then, that Sir Richard 
had not been perfectly sane since the ever-to-be- 
regretted fatal event at Claremont. Was it not 
therefore astonishing that his professional as well 
as other friends, who were suspicious, if not fully 
aware, of the doctor's derangement, should have 
been silent upon this important point, and have 
allowed Sir Richard to continue in the exercise of 
his professional practice } Did they not, by such 
silence, contribute to the peril of females in the 
most trying moment of nature's sorrow > The 
disinterested reader will, doubtless, join us in our 
expressions of indignation at such wanton and 
cruel conduct. 

The letter written to Sir Richard, by order of 
the prince, proves nothing but the folly of those 
who advised it. That letter was not calculated to 
remove any of those suspicions respecting the 
untimely death of the Princess Charlotte, which 
rolled like heavy clouds over the intelligent minds 
of the greater portion of the nation ; neither was 
it likely to hush the spirit of inquiry, because its 
details were evidently meant to prevent any spe- 


cial explanation. The Marquis of Hertford, 
chamberlain to the regent, well knew at this 
period how to estimate medicinal cause and effect. 

Presuming my Lord Bloomfield to have been 
an actor in "the tragedy," we cannot help think- 
ing that his reward was more than adequate to 
the services performed. His pension of twelve 
hundred pounds per annum was dated December, 
18 1 7. What extraordinary benefits had he ren- 
dered to this oppressed nation to merit such an 
income? We ought also to mention that, after 
this period, we find his lordship named as " envoy 
and minister plenipotentiary in Sweden," for which 
he received the annual sum of four thousand nine 
hundred pounds, and, as colonel of artillery, one 
thousand and three pounds, making in all the 
enormous annual sum of seven thousand one hun- 
dred and three pounds. 

These remarks are not intended to wound the 
feelings of private families, but are made with 
a view to urge a strict investigation into the cause 
of the Princess Charlotte's death. We are well 
aware that many great persons have reason to fear 
the result of such an inquiry, yet the injured 
ought to have justice administered, even at the 
" eleventh hour," if it cannot sooner be obtained. 
Many a murderer has been executed twenty, or 
even thirty, years after the commission of his 

Though at this time ministers had a Parliament 


almost entirely devoted to their wishes, there were 
a few members of it who vigorously opposed unjust 
measures, and they could not always carry their 
plans into execution. The amount solicited for 
the Duke of Clarence upon his intended marriage 
with the Princess of Saxe-Meiningen is a proof of 
this ; for, although the regent sent a message to 
the House to accomplish this object, it was at first 
refused, and the duke did not gain his point till a 
considerable time afterward. 

In this year the Duke of Kent was united to a 
sister of Prince Leopold. 

In September, while most requisite to her 
party, the queen was taken ill. Bulletin followed 
upon bulletin, and the disorder was reported to 
increase. Some of the public papers announced 
that her Majesty had expressed an ardent desire to 
witness a reconciliation between the Prince and 
Princess of Wales, as she imagined her dissolu- 
tion was now near at hand. The report, however, 
was as false as it was unlikely ; for, only a month 
before this period, spies had been despatched to 
obtain witnesses, of any description, against the 
honour of the princess, by which means her ene- 
mies hoped to accomplish their most ardent 
desires. Queen Charlotte's conscience was not 
of a penetrable nature, as her bitter enmity to the 
Princess of Wales continued even to her death. 

With her Majesty it had ever been an invariable 
maxim that "might constitutes right;** but the 


reflections of her mind, while surveying the proba- 
bility of a speedy dissolution, must have been of 
a complexion too dreary to be faithfully pictured. 
She — who had been the arbitress of the fates of 
nations, whose commands none dared dispute or 
disobey, and at whose frown numberless syco- 
phants and dependents trembled — was now about 
to face the dread enemy of mankind. The proud 
heart of Queen Charlotte must have been humbled 
at the thought of meeting her judge, who is said 
to be "no distinguisher of persons.*' 

During her indisposition, the queen seemed 
much impressed with the idea that she should 
recover, and it was not till the 2d of November 
that the physicians deemed it requisite to acquaint 
the queen of her danger. The intelligence was 
given in the most delicate manner possible ; yet 
her Majesty exhibited considerable alarm at the 
information. It was pressingly hinted by the 
princesses to their mother, that the sacrament 
ought to be administered ; but the queen positively 
refused the " holy rite," saying, " It is of no use, 
as I am unable to take it." One of the princesses 
immediately said, " You do not mean to say that 
you murdered the Princess Charlotte } " " No," 
faintly answered the queen, "but I connived at 
it." We pledge ourselves to the truth of this 
statement, however incredible it may appear to 
those who have considered Queen Charlotte as 
"a pattern to her sex." When the general ser- 


vility of the press to royalty is taken into consid- 
eration, it is hardly to be wondered at that people 
are misinformed as to the real characters of kings 
and queens. Take the following false and most 
inconsistent eulogium, copied from the Atlas news- 
paper, as an example of this time-serving violation 
of truth : 

" Queen Charlotte's constant attendance on the 
king, and her grief for the loss of her granddaugh- 
ter, gained ground on her constitution ; and her 
Majesty expired at Kew, on the 17th of November, 
18 18. In all the relations of a wife and mother, 
the conduct of the queen had been exemplary. 
Pious, without bigotry ; virtuous, but not austere ; 
serious, yet capable of the most perfect enjoyment 
of innocent pleasure ; unostentatious, economical, 
adorned with all domestic virtues, and not without 
the charities of human nature, the queen had lived 
respected, and she died full of years and honour, 
regretted by her subjects, and most by those who 
knew her best. If her talents were not shining, 
nor her virtues extraordinary, she never employed 
the first in faction, nor bartered the second for 
power. She was occasionally accused of political 
interference, by contemporary jealousy ; but history 
will acquit her of the charge. She was a strict 
moralist, though her conduct to one part of her 
family [the heroic Caroline, we suppose] was per- 
haps more rigorous than just. Her proudest 
drawing-room was the hearth of her home. Her 


brightest gems were her children [heaven save the 
mark !], and her greatest ambition to set an example 
of matronly virtue and feminine dignity to the ladies 
of her adopted country ! " 

We should absolutely blush for the writer of this 
paragraph, did we think that he really meant his 
panegyric to be taken literally. For the sake of 
common honesty, however, we will not suppose he 
so intended it ; he must be some severe critic who 
adopted this style as the keenest kind of wit, for 

*< Praise undesenred is satire in disguise ! " 

The august remains of this royal lady were, on 
the 2d of December, deposited in the vault pre- 
pared for their reception, with all the parade usual 
on such expensive occasions. We will not detain 
our readers by describing the funeral pomp, though 
we cannot avoid noticing that the body was not 
opened, but immediately enclosed in prepared 
wrappers, and very speedily deposited in the first 
coffin, which was a leaden one. Indeed, her 
Majesty was not in a fit state to undergo the 
usual formalities of embalming, etc. Her body 
was literally a moving mass of corruption. 


A Queen without Virtues — The Assassination of Edward, Duke 
of York — The Hounds at Taplow Heath — An Unhappy 
Life — Serious Questionings — An Ill-fated Son — Forced 
into the Church — Proof Founded upon the Principle of 
Truth — Chicanery — Dictatorial Conduct of Queen Charlotte 
Explained — Her Character — The Duke of York and a Soft 
Position — Death of George the Third — Unpleasant In- 
quiries Are Suppressed — The King Can Do No Wrong I — 
A Courageous Princess — The Fortunes of Accusers. 

|ET us now sum up the mortal train of 
evils which were so generously nourished 
" by the departed," for virtues she had 
none. The power of royalty may intimidate the 
irresolute, astonish the uninformed, or bribe the 
villain ; but, as we do not claim affinity with either 
of these characters, we honestly avow that her 
Majesty did not deserve the title " of blessed 
memory." At the commencement of her alliance 
with the much-to-be-pitied George the Third, she 
took every advantage of his weakness, and actually 
directed the helm of government alone, which un- 
toward circumstance England has abundant cause 
to remember ! 

The next brother to the king (Edward), whom 
we have before mentioned, was most unexpectedly 



and unaccountably sent abroad, notwithstanding 
his being next in succession. His Royal High- 
nesses marriage with a descendant of the Stuarts, 
though strictly legal, was never acknowledged by 
Queen Charlotte, and his only child, soon after its 
birth, was thrown upon the compassionate atten- 
tion of strangers. As there is something so horri- 
ble relative to the death of this amiable duke and 
duchess, and something so heartless and cruel in 
the treatment to which their only son has been 
subjected, we are induced, for the sake of truth 
and justice, to lay a brief statement of the matter 
before our readers. 

Historians have either been treacherous or 
Ignorant of the circumstances connected with the 
case of this Duke of York, who was the second 
son of Freierick, Prince of Wales, and next 
brother of George the Third. Most writers have 
represented "that he died in consequence of a 
malignant fever," as we have before mentioned; 
but one historian ventured to assert that " Ed- 
ward, Duke of York, was assassinated in Septem- 
ber, I y6T^ near Monaco, in Italy." This statement 
we are sorry to say, is but too true, which caused 
the book containing it to be bought up at an im- 
mense expense. The unhappy widow of his Royal 
Highness was then far advanced in pregnancy, 
and, very shortly after this melancholy and (to 
her) irreparable loss, she came over to England, 
and took up her residence at Haverford West, in 


South Wales. At this place her Ro)ral Highness 
gave birth to a son, whose baptism was duly 
entered in the register of St. Thomas's parish. 
What afterward became of this illustrious lady, 
however, is not known ; but her infant was, shortly 
after its birth, conveyed to London, and placed, 
by George the Third, under the immediate care 
and protection of a tradesman and his wife, by 
whom he was represented to be their own son. 
This tradesman, although only twenty-seven years 
of age, enjoyed the particular confidence of his Maj- 
esty, and has been known to walk with the king 
by the hour in the gardens adjoining Buckingham 
House, conversing with all the familiarity of an old 
acquaintance or an especial friend, and who at alj 
times could command an interview with his Majesty, 
or with the ministers. When about twelve years 
old this ill-fated offspring of the duke was placed 
at Eton, upon which occasion his Majesty took es- 
pecial notice of the youth, and was in the habit 
of conversing very freely with him. He had not 
been long at Eton when his Majesty allowed him 
to go with his reputed father to see the hounds 
throw off at Taplow Heath ; a chaise was ordered 
for this purpose, and they arrived just before the 
deer were let out. Upon their alighting, the king 
rode up to them, and expressed his very great 
satisfaction at the appearance of the youth ; and, 
after asking many questions relative to the arrange- 
ments made for him at school, said, "Well, my 


little fellow, do you be a good boy, and you shall 
never want friends. Good-bye, good-bye ; the deer 
will soon be out/' His Majesty then rode back 
to his attendants. Whenever George the Third 
passed through Eton it was his invariable practice 
either to speak to or inquire after this youth, in 
whose welfare he ever appeared deeply interested. 
From Eton he was removed to college ; and after 
this period vexations of an unpleasant nature were 
experienced by this orphan : his income was too 
Umited, and unkindness and illiberality were too 
frequently his portion ; even during severe indis- 
position he was permitted to languish without 
being supplied with sufficient means to procure 
the needful restoratives. His life now became 
little else than one continued scene of unhappi- 
ness ; his associates at the university were well 
acquainted with these facts, and appeared deeply 
interested in his welfare, regretting that the mind 
and talent of such an amiable and promising youth 
should be enervated by the severity or inattention 
of his connections. But as he had been severely 
rebuked for making a complaint and offering a 
remonstrance, he resolved to suffer in " silent sor- 
row," much to the injury of his mental enjoyments. 
During a vacation and previous to his removal 
from college a dispute arose amongst the members 
of his reputed father's family upon the subject of 
religion. The debate at length assumed a formid- 
able appearance, and bigotry plainly supplied the 


place of sound reasoning. The family separated 
in the evening, each displeased with the other, 
and all except one individual at issue with the 
royal prot^g6. Early in the ensuing morning this 
dissentient member of the family requested the 
favour of an interview with the illustrious youth, 
and remarked that the occurrence was not a mat- 
ter of surprise, as the very peculiar circumstances 
connected with the reputed father of the young 
gentleman were of a most serious description. 
** To what do you allude ? ** said the youth. ** You 
ought to know," answered this honourable friend, 
" that you have no right to submit to insult here. 
You are the highest person in this house, and are, 
by your rank, entitled to the greatest respect from 
every one. Your pretended father forgets his duty 
and his engagements when he permits you to be 
treated with disrespect ; and if his Majesty knew 
these circumstances, your abode would soon be 
changed and your profession would be abandoned. 
The king never would allow an indignity to be 
offered to you in any way, much less by the per- 
son into whose care he has so confidingly entrusted 
you." "What!" said the young prince, "am I 

not the son of Mr. } But, if I am, why 

should his Majesty take so much interest in my 
case?" "No," answered his informant, "you are 

not the son of Mr. . But ask no more ; 

my life might probably pay for my explanation." 
From this period the subject of our memoir was 


treated with the greatest unkindness and personal 
indignity by almost every member of his reputed 
father's family. Indeed, the imperious behaviour 
of the elder branches was such as could not be 
passed over in silence ; in consequence of which 
the high-spirited and noble victim was sent back 
to college for the remainder of the vacation, with 
little more in his purse than would defray the 
expenses of the journey ; but the command was 
peremptory. After remaining some time in utter 
destitution, the royal prot6g6 wrote to request an 
early supply of cash, naming for what purposes. 
This appeal was considered as the effect of ex- 
travagance and profligacy, and, instead of being 
properly complied with, was answered with acri- 
mony, everything the reverse of parental feeling. 
Under these heartrending circumstances did this 
ill-fated son of Prince Edward labour for nearly 
four years at the university, not daring to make 
any further appeals to the austere, impatient, and 
arbitrary person to whose care the king had so 
fully though secretly entrusted him. At length, 
however, a severe illness was the consequence; 
and censure, in no very measured terms, was 
heaped upon the unfeeling character who had so 
cruelly immolated a promising and worthy young 
gentleman, and who, he well knew, was of the 
most illustrious descent. Those who were ac- 
quainted with the particulars of the case were 
most incensed against such heartless conduct. 



Mr. had undertaken the important charge 

of seeing this prot6g6 able to realise the ardent 
wish of his Majesty, either as a legal or clerical 
character, and thereby, in some degree, provided 
for. But, while his Majesty's nephew was refused 
means to live respectably and excluded from all 
youthful amusements, the real sons of his reputed 
father were allowed all the pleasures and enjoy- 
ments of life. At his final removal from college 
this ill-treated prince represented to his unfeeling 
guardian that he should take greater pleasure in 
pursuing legal to clerical engagements; but his 
wishes in this, as in most other matters, were 
totally disregarded, and the Church was destined, 
by arbitrary will, to be his profession. He there- 
fore, at the proper age, was compelled to take 
orders, and enter upon a profession he had not 
chosen. As the home of his reputed father was 
scarcely to be endured, a curacy was eagerly ac- 
cepted, and the son of the Duke of York, the 
nephew of George the Third, was transformed into 
"a clergyman of the Church of England ! " Here 
he toiled in an obscure village, scarcely receiving 
sufficient means to discharge the small demands 
required for his maintenance. 

Shortly after this, the principal of the living 
died insolvent, and the little remuneration due to 
the curate could not be obtained. In this dis- 
tressing state of affairs, the persecuted prince 
could obtain no settlement from his guardian ; yet 


from comparative nothingness, this man was raised 
to affluence, and was then living in much style, 
keeping his carriage and horses, inhabiting a man- 
sion of very superior description, and the whole of 
his family enjoying every superfluity of life. He, 
however, on whose sole account this sumptuous 
appearance was bestowed, was "eating the bread 
of carefulness, and reposing upon the couch of 
sorrow." We need not enter more fully into 
the case of this unfortunate, but worthy, descend- 
ant of Prince Edward, than say that, from the 
commencement of his studies to a very recent 
period, he has been the victim of power. His 
sufferings and his sorrows have been too great 
for language to describe ; and, but for the bless- 
ings of a fine constitution, he must have fallen 
under them. But, if he be called upon in a 
suitable manner, we doubt not that he has yet 
preserved to him sufficient of his natural cour- 
age, though in his sixty-fifth year, to make 
"false accusation blush, and tyranny tremble at 
patience ! ** 

We claim the attention of our readers while we 
offer proof that our assertions are founded upon 
the glorious principle of truth. We have our- 
selves, to elucidate this matter, examined all the 
registers of the various parishes in Carnarvonshire 
and Carmarthenshire, and found every register 
complete from 1760, until we came to that of 
St. Thomas, Haverford West, at which place we 



could not find a single register before the year 
1776. To substantiate this fact, we subjoin the 
following certificate of the parish clerk : 

" Haverford West, Parish of St. Thomas. 

" There are no registers in the possession of the 

present rector of the above parish, prior to the 

year 1776. 

(Signed) "Joseph Lloyd Morgan, 

''Parish Clerk. 
''13th Sept., i8ji:' 

Here, then, is a blank for which no apology can 
be received, — no obsequious profession of sorrow 
or regret can compensate. We presume to declare 
that, if the parish registers throughout the whole 
of the United Kingdoms be investigated, a similar 
defect will not be found. We are, therefore, justi- 
fied in supposing that this defect arose solely and 
entirely from concerted measures, to keep the sub- 
ject of our memoir from ever having it in his power 
to bring legal proof of his noble descent. 

The time will probably arrive when we may be 
permitted to enter more fully into this atrocious 
business, and then we shall not spare the " op- 
pressors of innocence," for truth is bold, and not 
always to be defied. It would have been better 
for such oppressors to have never seen the light 
than to have gained their wicked purposes by 
such an unmanly sacrifice of the rights of nature. 


Every individual ought to feel interested in the 
full and fair explanation of this chicanery ; for if 
such misdeeds are suffered to remain unpunished, 
a safeguard is offered to future tyrants. Startling 
facts like these speak volumes, and any honest and 
upright member of the community will not need 
more than their simple avowal to rouse his indig- 
nation. Such encroachments on the rights of 
individuals call aloud for retributive justice, and 
we trust the call will not long be made in vain. 
Surely there is yet sufficient virtue left amongst us 
to prevent this once great nation from being sacri- 
ficed to the fluctuating interests or wayward prej- 
udices of ministers, or even of a monarch. It is 
high time to shake off all lethargy. This, as well 
as many other subjects, which we have exposed, 
deserve — nay, demand — Parliamentary investi- 
gation. Hitherto, some dreadful infatuation seems 
to have presided over the councils of this country. 
Insatiable ambition has caused all the horrors im- 
posed upon the United Kingdoms, and has plunged 
a professedly free and great people into debt and 
disgrace. Indolence now, therefore, is only com- 
parable with the conduct of a prodigal who has 
wasted his estate without reflection, and then has 
not the courage to examine his accounts; far be 
this from Britons ! 

From this digression, we return to the con- 
sideration of Queen Charlotte's character. The 
open and virtuous conduct of the Earl of Chat- 


ham, and his rebuffs from the queen in conse- 
quence thereof, affords another proof of the 
domination which her Majesty endeavoured to 
exercise over all advisers of the Crown. The 
imbecility of the king, owing to circumstances 
formerly noticed by us, as well as the horrors of 
a ruinous war, must also be ascribed to the dic- 
tatorial conduct of Queen Charlotte. The unjus- 
tifiable hatred her Majesty imbibed against the 
Princess of Wales, and the consequent unfeeling 
demeanour she exhibited to that victim, would of 
itself be sufficient to refute the praises of her 
minions, and stamp her name with everlasting 
infamy. But many other convincing proofs are 
upon record. Her Majesty well knew that the 
country was bending under an enormous load of 
debt, which encumbered its inhabitants ; she knew 
of their sufferings and complaints ; but the appeal- 
ing voices of reason and supplication were never 
deemed worthy of her attention. What traits of 
" matronly " goodness or natural affection did she 
exhibit for the Princess Charlotte, when advancing 
to the hour of her peril ? And what proofs have 
we of " her grief for the loss of her granddaugh- 
ter," so satirically ascribed, by the writer quoted a 
few pages back, to be one of the causes of her 
Majesty's last illness ? Alas ! her Majesty's ab- 
ject though horrible confession on her death-bed, 
relative to this unfortunate princess, too fatally 
corroborated the infamy of her general conduct. 


We need not proceed further with her Majesty's 
character ; this, this unnatural act is enough to 
chill the blood in the veins of every human 

At this time, very little was said of the afflicted 
king ; indeed, the bulletins assumed such a same- 
ness of expression, that the country thought there 
was not satisfactory evidence to prove the sover- 
eign was really alive. His Majesty's disorder did 
not require that close and solitary confinement so 
arbitrarily imposed upon him. If he had been a 
private gentleman, associated with an affectionate 
wife and dutiful children, would he not have fre- 
quently been persuaded to take an airing in an 
open carriage ? But how infinitely superior were 
the facilities attendant upon the situation of the 
king than could possibly be possessed by any pri- 
vate gentleman ! His Majesty had long been lan- 
guishing, and was, at the commencement of 18 19, 
insensible to all around him. Death was evidently 
making rapid strides, and yet the bulletins contin- 
ued of the same general expression. 

At this time, we had the honour of being per- 
sonally acquainted with one of the king's sons, 
whose integrity has ever been considered unim- 
peachable, both in his public and private character. 
The information we received relative to the king's 
death came directly from his Royal Highness. 

It will be remembered that much doubt pre- 
vailed upon the reality of the king's existence, and 


numerous bets were entered into upon the subject 
by persons in the higher circles. Notwithstanding 
this, on the 25th of January, the Earl of Liverpool 
introduced a motion to the House of Lords for 
the purpose of nominating the Duke of York 
to the office of "guardian to the king," as, in 
consequence of the demise of her Majesty, that 
trust had become vacant. Much altercation ensued. 
The duke's former delinquencies had not been for- 
gotten, and the country was tired with the sub- 
jection they then endured from the imposing 
privileges of royalty. But, in despite of all op- 
position and remonstrance, the care of the king's 
person was committed to the Duke of York, for 
which his Royal Highness had the unblushing 
effrontery to receive ten thousand pounds a year 
for visiting his dying father twice a week. What 
an unprecedented example of avarice and unduti- 
f ulness was here manifested by a son to his parent, 
who would have travelled the same distance any 
time to have gratified his passions ! . Oh, shame, 
where is thy blush ? Oh, infamy, art thou not 
now detected ? A few weeks after this motion 
had received the approbation of the agents of cor- 
ruption, the long afflicted and disappointed George 
the Third died ; but the event was carefully con- 
cealed from the public. Prayers were still read in 
churches for his recovery, though the bishops knew 
they were mocking heaven, by praying for the life 
of one who was already dead. Ye sticklers for up- 


holding the present impious system of church gov- 
ernment, what say ye to this ? Could infamy and 
blasphemy go any further ? And yet those at the 
head of this system are still allowed to insult 
the country by proposing general fasts to people 
already starving, as well as impiously accusing the 
Almighty with spreading distress and pestilence 
over the land which they themselves have laid 
waste by their rapacity and worldly-mindedness ! 
While the cleigy were praying for the life of the 
deceased king to be preserved, the apartments for- 
merly in the occupation of his Majesty were kept 
in the same state as when the monarch was alive, 
and the royal body, after being embalmed, was 
placed in a leaden coffin of needful substance. 
Our royal informant went on to state that these 
impositions were practised upon the public to give 
time for selecting proper persons to be despatched 
to Milan, or elsewhere, to gain intelligence what 
the Princess of Wales intended upon the demise 
of the king, as, in that event occurring, her Royal 
Highness would become queen consort. 

Notwithstanding all this cunning and trickery, 
her Royal Highness was informed of the death 
of her father-in-law many months before it became 
publicly known. A junior branch of the royal 
family wrote to her : " The king is now dead, but 
this event will not be made known to the nation 
till certain arrangements are made, on behalf of 
the prince regent, to degrade you ; and either keep 


you abroad for the remainder of your life, void of 
your title as Queen of England, and with other 
restrictions, or to obtain witnesses, and, giving you 
the form of a trial, insult and destroy you." Her 
Royal Highness, however, was precluded from act- 
ing upon this information by her correspondent, 
who enjoined her to the strictest secrecy till the 
event should be made known to her by the min- 
isters of the Crown. 

In the meantime, every opportunity to suppress 
unpleasant inquiries or investigations upon subjects 
connected with royalty and the time-serving min- 
istry was carefully embraced. That unparalleled 
junto, Liverpool, Castlereagh, Sidmouth, and others 
of the same profession, not forgetting our dear 
venerable Lord Eldon and the pious bishops, were 
well aware of George the Third's death, at the 
time it happened. They had, indeed, been expect- 
ing it for some time ; yet these were the persons 
who assisted to deceive the public mind, and pre- 
vent the straightforward acknowledgment of truth. 
The evidence we have adduced of this fact is so 
palpable and strong, that he who can resist its 
force must be strangely void of perception, or else 
have made a previous resolve not to suffer himself 
to be the subject of conviction. 

In the early part of May several persons were 
introduced at court, and received the royal smile, 
on being appointed to investigate the private con- 
duct of the Princess of Wales. Their purses were 


also amply supplied by the royal command, and 
if further sums were found needful, they received 
letters of credit upon the principal banking houses 
named in the route they had to take. If any 
person in the common ranks of life gives away 
that which is not his to give, he renders himself 
liable to transportation ; but it is said a '' king can 
do no wrong ! " The most disreputable of society 
were solicited to give information against the Prin- 
cess of Wales, either with regard to any public or 
private intelligence they might have received ; the 
most liberal offers were also made to remunerate 
the persons so inquired of. After an immense 
expense, information, though of a doubtful charac- 
ter, against the princess was obtained, only by pur- 
chase ; and various were the despatches sent over 
to this country, and answered by the ministerial 
plotters, who exerted all their energies to bring 
the business to a consummation. 

During such disreputable transactions, the prin- 
cess knew the real cause of all the attempts to 
insult and degrade her character ; and she, there- 
fore, without delay, advised with her legal friends 
what steps were most proper to take. Alas ! the 
princess was doomed only to receive fresh insults ; 
delay followed delay ; excuses of the most pallia- 
tive description were used, instead of sound advice 
and positive opinion, and it appeared as if every 
hand were raised against her. Indeed, the per- 
plexed and mortifying situation of the princess 


was attended with such dangerous consequences 
that, had she not been a most courageous woman, 
and supported by her innocence, she must have 
sank under her fears. Driven into exDe, aban- 
doned by the ministry, deserted by her friends, 
through the bribery of her enemies, attacked by 
her nearest relations, the only resource she had 
left was in committing her person, her sceptre, 
her crown, and her honour to the care of the 
representatives of the British people. For our 
own parts, we cannot forget that, when she was 
accused before Parliament on a former occasion, 
the whole nation was melted into tears, or in- 
flamed with rage; and, except those princes and 
their minions who should have felt for her the 
most, there was found but one heart, one will, and 
one voice, on the subject throughout the king- 
doms. Nor can it have escaped the observation 
of our countrymen, that all those persons, origi- 
nally employed in bringing to trial this illustrious 
and virtuous woman, have been munificently re- 
warded ; while those who advocated her cause, and 
stood between her and the axe uplifted for her 
destruction, have experienced nothing but the 
blackest calumny and detraction. 

Lord Moira, the author of the first investiga- 
tion, was made Marquis of Hastings and Gov- 
ernor-General of India. This individual, however, 
desired his right hand might be amputed immedi- 
ately after his decease, as an expiatory judgment 


against himself, in having signed dishonourable 
deeds to injure the happiness of the princess. 
Conant, the poor Marlborough Street magistrate, 
who procured the attested evidence for impeach- 
ment, was created Sir Nathaniel, with an increase 
of a thousand pounds a year, as chief of all the 
police offices. The Douglases were all either ele- 
vated to wealth, office, or rank. The Jerseys 
stood in the sunshine of the court ; and the Rev. 
Mr. Bates, then editor of The Herald^ and her 
bitterest enemy, was created a baronet, and pro- 
moted high in the Church. Such was the fortune 
of her accusers ; but how different was that of her 
supporters 1 


The Chancellor of the Exchequer's Plan — Seditious Spirit — 
A Mob Is Trampled under Foot — Lord Sidmonth — Mr. 
Bell and His Accomplices — The Poetry of a Repentant 
King — No Charter to Privilege Murder — Killed and 
Wounded — A Speech before Parliament — Where Were 
the Principal Officers of State? — An Appeal for Long 
Delayed Justice — Bound in Honour — Political Sentiments 
— The Duke of Kent Dies— History Set Right — "The 
Cato Street Conspiracy** — Five Martyrs Suffer as Traitors. 

[N June, the chancellor of the exchequer 
submitted his plan of finance. It proved 
that the revenue was reduced eighteen 
millions, to meet which, extra loans were proposed 
to be raised and new taxes enforced. In doing 
this, the Speaker of the House of Commons, in the 
address to the regent, said : " In adopting this 
course, his Majesty's faithful Commons do not 
conceal from themselves that they are calling 
upon the nation for a great exertion ; but, well 
knowing that honour, character, and independence 
have at all times been the first and dearest objects 
of the hearts of Englishmen, we feel assured that 
there is no difficulty that the country would not 
encounter, and no pressure to which it would not 
cheerfully submit, to enable us to maintain pure 



and unimpaired that which has never yet been 
shaken or sullied, — our public credit, and our 
national good faith." Now let us ask the reason 
why an extra immense burden of taxation was to 
be levied upon the people. The queen was ac- 
knowledged to be dead, and certainly could not 
be chargeable to the nation by her personal ex- 
penditure or allowance. The king was also dead, 
though his income was received as usual, as well 
as the Duke of York's ten thousand pounds for 
attending him. Royal and ministerial extrava- 
gance likewise caused the useless outlay of twenty 
thousand five hundred pounds for snuff-boxes, 
besides twelve hundred guineas as presents to 
three German barons. The gift of an axe or 
a halter would have better accorded with the 
financial state of the empire. 

The prince regent closed the session in person 
on the 1 3th of July ; and, at the conclusion of his 
speech, adverted to the seditious spirit (what 
sensible man could feel surprised at it } ) which 
was evident in the manufacturing districts, and 
avowed a firm determination to employ the powers 
provided by law for its suppression, instead of 
promising the people redress of grievances. 

In Glasgow, Leeds, Manchester, and Stockport, 
the meetings of the inhabitants now became very 
numerous, while all means were taken by the local 
authorities to provoke general confusion. 

On the 1 6th of August the memorable meeting 


at Manchester took place, for the purpose of peti- 
tioning for a reform in the representation. The 
assembly consisted of from sixty to one hundred 
thousand persons, who conducted themselves in 
the most peaceable manner. The assembled mul- 
titude, however, were suddenly surprised by the 
arrival of the Manchester yeomanry cavalry, to 
which were afterward added a regiment of the 
Cheshire yeomanry and a regiment of hussars, — 
the outlets being occupied by other military de- 
tachments. The unarmed thousands were now 
driven one upon another, and many were killed 
and wounded, while others were ridden over by 
the horses. The number ascertained to have 
been killed were eight men, two women, and one 
child ; but the wounded were about six hundred. 
How well the words of a celebrated author apply 
to this diabolical proceeding : " A kingdom for a 
stage, princes to act, and to behold the grand 
effect ; but at their heels, leashed in like hounds, 
may not sword, famine, fire, crouch for employ- 
ment ? ** Numerous imprisonments followed, and 
many poor families were consequently deprived of 

Historians are at issue whether or not the riot 
act was read before the scene of carnage com- 
menced, as it is unconstitutional to send a military 
force to act before so doing. We, however, confi- 
dently assert it was not read in the hearing of any 
of the populace, neither was it at all likely that 


the soldiers could have come so suddenly and un- 
expectedly upon the multitudes, unless by previous 
order and arrangement. Further than this, an 
hour ought to have transpired after such reading 
before a soldier or civil officer could be authorised 
to interfere in dispersing the meeting. As a proof 
of the corresponding features of this unexampled 
and murderous business, a letter was written by 
the pious Lord Sidmouth, in the name of the re- 
gent, to the Earl of Derby, presenting thanks for 
the vigorous and able conduct of the magistracy 
and military of Manchester on the i6th. Thus 
were the lives and liberties of the open-hearted 
population of these kingdoms allowed to be at the 
control of an impotent and heartless statesman; 
for it appeared that the regent was not at hand to 
have given his assent to this unparalleled piece of 
barefaced audacity. Lord Sidmouth should have 
been more careful of dates, as the "royal dandy" 
was at that time taking a little pleasure near the 
Isle of Wight. But the following particulars will 
explain the systematic plan of this cold-blooded 
massacre : 

Mr. H. N. Bell, before this period, was confi- 
dentially employed at the office of the secretary 
of state, in the capacity of genealogist, under the 
immediate control of Lord Sidmouth. Some con- 
siderable period before the melancholy butchery, 
he was engaged to proceed to Manchester, in 
company with two other persons, for the avowed 



purpose of inflaming the public mind against the 
ministry. He went, and the result was as his 
patron and employer, Lord Sidmouth, desired it. 
Mr. Bell and his associates expressed to the people 
of Manchester that they need not remain in their 
then starving condition, if, in an orderly and peace- 
able manner, they were to assemble on some con- 
venient spot, and unanimously resolve to petition 
for a reform, so much needed, in the representa- 
tion. These tools of the secretary of state told 
the famishing multitudes that, if they pleased to 
enjoy happiness and plenty, together with civil 
liberty, they had now an opportunity of accom- 
plishing their most earnest wishes. Under their 
influence, clubs and unions were soon formed, 
and public notices were ultimately given, that a 
general meeting would take place on the i6th of 

These preliminary arrangements being com- 
pleted, the soldiery had instructions to be ready. 
The result was as before stated ; and Mr. Bell 
and his accomplices returned to London as soon 
as their object was attained. The Duke of York 
acted a prominent part in this plot, from his mili- 
tary facilities ; but the besotted prince was per- 
suaded to get out of the way until the affair should 
be concluded. 

Mr. Bell proved very useful in the office of the 
secretary, and as he had once forfeited his own 
good opinion, by lending himself to the diabolical 


plot just mentioned, he made no further scruple, 
but became a passive engine, directed in his actions 
by the command of ministers and state empirics. 
Lord Sidmouth was dissatisfied with the Man- 
chester business ; he had hoped that many more 
might have been brought to suffer the extreme 
penalty of the law, thereby affording an awful 
example to deter others from daring to question 
the excellency of the government under which they 
lived, and the generous disposition of the govern- 
ors. We are aware that some people attributed 
this affair to the magistracy ; but they would not 
have dared to interfere in such a manner as they 
did, unless sanctioned and supported by the higher 
powers. The cause of a selfish, cruel, and des- 
potic ministry required the assistance of corre- 
sponding heartless servants, and they obtained it. 
Lord Castlereagh, however, threw out many insin- 
uations that the Manchester plot was a very bold 
and desperate undertaking ; but the pious doctor 
" laid the flattering unction to his soul of its expe- 
diency," believing some such infamous procedure 
needful to rivet the iron sceptre of despotism. 
How well does the repentant language of a certain 
wicked king apply here ! 

" My fault is past. But, O, what form of prayer 
Can serve my turn ? Forgive me my foul murder I — 
That cannot be, since I am still possessed 
Of those efiEects for which I did the murder ! 


In the corrupted currents of this world, 
Offence's gilded hand may shove by justice ; 
And oft 'tis seen, the wicked prize itself 
Buys out the law ! " 

This has proved but too true, as well in the Man- 
chester affair as in many other diabolical state pro- 
ceedings. The little value, indeed, which the 
ministers of this period entertained for human life 
ought never to be pardoned. Property, if seized 
or lost, may be restored ; or if not, man may enjoy 
a thousand delightful pleasures of existence with- 
out riches. The sun shines as warmly on the poor 
as on the rich ; the gale of health breathes its 
balsam into the cottage casement on the heath no 
less sweetly and salubriously than in the portals of 
the palace. But can the lords of this world, who 
think so little of the lives of their inferiors in 
wealth, with all their boasted power, relume the 
light of the eye once dimmed by the shades of 
death } " Accursed despots ! " as a talented author 
well observes, " show the world your authority for 
taking away that which ye never gave, and cannot 
give ; for undoing the work of God, and extinguish- 
ing the lamp of life which was illuminated with a 
ray from heaven ! Where is your charter to priv- 
ilege murder?" All the gold of Ophir, all the 
gems of Golconda, cannot buy a single life, nor pay 
for its loss, — it is above all price. Yet when we 
take a view of the proceedings of Lord Sidmouth's 
junto, we are led to believe anything of more value 


than human life. Crimes which had very little 
moral evil, if any, and which, therefore, could not 
incur the vengeance of a just and merciful God, 
were unceremoniously punished with death by 
this minister. Men, for instance, were liable to be 
shot for meeting peaceably together and making 
speeches, though proceeding from the purest and 
most virtuous principles, from the most enlarged 
benevolence, from wisdom and unaffected patriot- 
ism ; or for such speeches as might proceed from 
mere warmth of temper, neither intending nor 
accomplishing any mischief. Was not such the 
case in that horrible affair which we have just 
related } But despots are ever frightened at their 
own shadows ; they tremble and become offended 
at the least alarm, and nothing but the blood pf the 
accused can expiate the offence. It is, however, 
from such savage acts of barbarity that the god- 
dess of liberty is aroused ; it is from the tyranny 
of her jailors that she eventually makes a progress 
irresistible, and carries with her fires destined to 
consume the throne of every despot that cannot 
bear the light. Various motions have been made 
since that accursed day to bring the surviving 
actors in the Manchester tragedy to condign 
punishment. Amongst the foremost in this laud- 
able endeavour stands Mr. Hunt ; but his efforts 
have hitherto proved unavailing. Although we dis- 
approve of the general conduct of the member for 
Preston, the meed of praise ought not to be with- 


held from him for the admirable speech he ddiv- 
eredy relative to this subject, in March, 1832, as 
follows : 

'' Mr. Hunt said the grossest misrepresentations 
had been made in Parliament respecting that occur- 
rence ; and he felt that it was a matter deeply to 
be regretted, that there was not in the House of 
Commons, at the time, some person who had wit- 
nessed the transaction, and who could put the 
House in possession of the real facts. There was 
a hope, however, that the present government 
would grant an inquiry for which he was about to 
apply, in conformity with the prayer of the peti- 
tions which he had just presented, and with the 
desire of his constituents. He proceeded to detail 
the circumstances under which the meeting of the 
Manchester reformers, at which he presided, took 
place. He described the horrible scene which 
ensued upon the dispersion of the meeting by an 
unprovoked and unresisted charge of the yeomanry 
cavalry. The House would have some notion of 
the violence and cruelty of the military from this 
fact, that when a number of men, women, and 
children had crowded into a small court, from 
which there was no thoroughfare, one of the yeo- 
manry drove them out, whilst another struck 
at each of them with his sabre, as they came 
out. The number of persons killed on that 
day amounted to fifteen, while the maimed 
and wounded were no fewer than 424. It was 


true that it might be said that some of these 
did not suffer from the sabres of the yeomanry, 
but a very large proportion, he would take on 
hjmself to say, were wounded in that man- 
ner; and, at all events, it was quite certain 
that no accident whatever would have occurred 
but for the outrageous attack that had been made 
on the peaceable multitude. Nor was it men 
alone that suffered. Women were cut down also. 
And were these men to be called soldiers ? Was 
this their way of showing their high courage and 
their honour by cutting down inoffensive females ? 
He would ask any man of humanity in that 
House, whether such disgraceful acts ought to 
be passed by unnoticed and unpunished, merely 
because it could be said that twelve years had 
elapsed since the transaction had taken place? 
But another excuse that perhaps might be made 
was, that the meeting was an illegal one. In an- 
swer to that, however, he would take on himself to 
say that, in his opinion, and in the opinion of those 
who constituted the meeting, they were as legally, 
ay, and as meritoriously assembled as that House 
was assembled ; and for as useful a purpose. No 
one was insulted — no tumult took place — no 
symptoms of riot were evinced ; and yet was it for 
a moment to be said that, in such a country as 
this, where there was a continual boast of the 
omnipotence of justice, such things were to be 
passed over without notice and without censure? 


He could assure the House that, if this inquiry 
was not granted, there would be thousands of 
hearts rankling dissatisfied and discontented, and 
which could never be set at ease till justice was 
awarded. The petitioners, in whose name he was 
speaking, recollected that Earl Grey, and many of 
his colleagues, expressed, at the time of this out- 
rage, a desire for an investigation into the matter. 
And how was that inquiry then resisted } First, 
by the production of official documents, emanating 
from the guilty party themselves; and next, by 
allusion to the trial at York ; and the cry that the 
courts of justice were open to those who had any 
complaint to make. But the courts of justice were 
not open; for the relations of those that were 
killed had gone to those courts of justice, and even 
there all retribution had been denied them in the 
most cruel and indifferent manner. Nor was this 
% all. All sorts of calumnious statements were 

■ ' allowed to be made in the House of Commons as 

/ to the conduct of the mob, by paid spies of the 

government. The general presumption was, that 

it was the intention of the Manchester meeting, 

had it not been interrupted, to pass resolutions 

i similar to those passed at Smithfield, declaratory 

that, without a reform in Parliament, taxes ought 
\ not to be paid ; and he believed that that presump- 

tion was the main reason why he had been found 
guilty. But now, what an alteration had taken 
place! It was only the other day that 150,000 


persons had met at Birmingham, and actually made 
a declaration to the same effect ; and yet they were 
not cut down, — the yeomanry had not been called 
out to act against them. This motion for a select 
committee had, in a manner, become absolutely 
necessary ; for when he had moved for the corre- 
spondence that had taken place between Lord Sid- 
mouth (then the secretary of state) and the lord 
lieutenant of the county, that correspondence had 
been refused; and, therefore, he had no other 
course to pursue than to ask for a committee for 
general inquiry into the whole question. Some 
part of Lord Sidmouth's correspondence, however, 
was before the public ; for he had in his hand that 
letter of his lordship's in which he, in the name of 
the prince regent, thanked the magistracy for the 
way in which they had acted, — yes, actually 
thanked them for having directed the execution of 
these cold-blooded murders, — by which name he 
must call those deeds, and by which name they 
were ever designated in that part of the country 
where they had been committed. The consequence 
of this letter was, that the parties, so far from 
shrinking abashed as they ought, actually gloried 
in the share they had taken in the transaction ; 
and, in particular, he might mention that an Irish- 
man of the name of Meagher, who was the 
trumpeter on that occasion, had boasted, when he 
returned to Ireland, that he had in one day spilled 
more Saxon blood than had ever been spilled by 


any one of his countrymen before ! The real truth 
of the matter was, in spite of the false colouring 
that interested parties had endeavoured to put on 
it, that the meeting at Manchester was neither 
more nor less than a reform meeting, that every- 
thing was going on peaceably, that not even so 
much as a pane of glass was broken, and though 
the government took the trouble to send Messrs. 
Oliver and Castles among the people to corrupt 
them, they were not able to succeed in their virtu- 
ous endeavours. As to his own personal feeling 
on the subject, he was quite willing to remember 
that twelve years had elapsed, and in that recollec- 
tion to drown the memory of all he had himself 
suffered in consequence of the transactions of that 
day. It was enough for him, when he recollected 
the object of that meeting, to see the noble lord 
introduce such a measure of reform as he had 
never expected to see any government in this 
country introduce ; and which, though it did not 
go the length that he could have desired, fully 
admitted the allegation, that the present House of 
Commons was not chosen by the people, — the 
allegation on which he had all along built his own 
proposition of reform. This, he repeated, was 
quite enough to wipe away any personal resent- 
ment that he might ever have felt. But if not — 
if he still were vindictive — what revenge might he 
not find in the events that had since taken place ! 
Who was the prime minister of that day.^ The 


Earl of Liverpool. And where was the Earl of 
Liverpool? Who were the principal officers of 
state of that day ? Lord Sidmouth, Mr. Canning, 
and Lord Castlereagh. Of these, Lord Sidmouth 
alone remained ; and where was Mr. Canning } 
where Lord Castlereagh, and how did he go out 
of the world } A remarkable fact it was, that two 
years afterward, on the very anniversary of that 
fatal 1 6th of August, while he was lying in prison, 
the very first letter that he opened detailed to him 
the end of that minister. Who was the reigning 
prince of that day ? — George the Fourth — where 
was he } They had all gone to answer for their 
deeds at a tribunal where no jury could be packed, 
where no evidence could be stifled, and where un- 
erring justice would be meted out to them. To 
carry this further, if it needed it, he might men- 
tion that two of those very yeomanry committed 
suicide on the very anniversary of the i6th of 
August, and many were now to be seen walking 
about the streets of Manchester, objects of a 
horrid pity. He would not say that all this was 
a just judgment on these participators in the mur- 
ders of Manchester ; but one might almost fancy 
that, though a House of Commons could not be 
found to deal out impartial justice, there was still 
a wise Providence over all, which, by its inter- 
ference, had taken care not to let the guilty 
escape ; and, as a climax to the whole, he hoped to 
live to see the day when the noble lord who yet 


lived should be brought to the bar of justice for 
having sent Castles, and Edwards, and Oliver, as 
\ spies, for the purpose of instigating the peaceful 

\ people to revolt. Nor was this all. Other retri- 

f bution had taken place; the government of that 

day and its friends had only countenanced this 
destruction of the people for the sake of showing 
their enmity to reform, but had actually under- 
taken a Continental war with the same objects in 
view; and yet now those very persons saw a 
reform taking place in spite of themselves, and had 
even been condemned unsuccessfully to battle its 
progress night after night in that House. He 
would say this, too, that if this committee of in- 
quiry should be refused, and if he should live a few 
years longer, he did not doubt that he should see 
the day arrive when a much heavier retaliation, in 
another way, would take place. He himself de- 
sired no such thing ; but was it in the character of 
human nature that persons who had been so deeply 
injured should sit down quiet and satisfied, when 
everything in the shape of redress was denied 
them ? But he trusted that the government would 
not refuse this motion for inquiry ; should, how- 
ever, such a refusal be given, he should feel it to 
be his duty to bring the question again and again 
before the country, as often as the forms of the 
House would allow. In making his proposition to 
the House, he had not provided himself with a 
seconder ; but after what had taken place, he would 

1 -^ 


call on the noble chancellor of the exchequer to 
second the motion. The noble lord had, twelve 
years ago, pretty freely expressed his opinion as 
to the transaction ; and he presumed that that 
opinion had not been altered by the lapse of time. 
The laws of England and of every country had 
always been unanimous in expressing their abhor- 
rence of the crime of murder ; and it was because 
he charged those parties with being guilty of a 
deliberate and cold-blooded murder that he de- 
manded an inquiry, in the name of justice and 

We offer no apology for introducing this elo- 
quent and manly appeal in behalf of long delayed 
justice. The popularity or unpopularity of Mr. 
Hunt forms no consideration in our minds ; nay, 
even if the Duke of Cumberland himself (much as 
we loathe his character ! ) had been its author, it 
should still have found a place in our volume. 
How the ministers could reconcile it with their* 
duty, both to God and man, to refuse the inquiry, 
we are at a loss to determine, particularly as each 
of them formerly expressed a desire for it. It is 
really astonishing with what different eyes men 
see things when in office and when toiling to 
get in ! 

In the October of this year, the Princess of 
Wales removed to Marseilles, weary of the at- 
tempts to traduce and insult her character by 
hirelings from the English court. A friend of 


ours had the pleasure of enjoying her Royal High- 
nesses confidence at this period, and, after her 
removal to Marseilles, the persecuted Caroline 
made the following observations : " What could I 
do, when I found such base attempts made to 
destroy my reputation by the most disreputable 
characters? I left Milan, and I have carefully 
preserved a journal of each day's history, which, 
upon perusal, will do much more than merely 
satisfy the nation, to which my heart so fondly 
clings. I wished," added the princess, ** very 
ardently to have gone to England in the early 
part of this year, and I had resolved to do so ; but 
my legal advisers prevented me, expressing their 
opinion that they should see me first." It is a 
fact that the interview with Mr. Brougham, so 
much desired in April, 1819, was not granted 
until a later period in 1820. Might not an earlier 
arrangement than this very probably have put the 
enemy to flight ? The princess was not ignorant 
of the demise of the king, as we have before 
stated ; and the source from which her Royal 
Highness received that information was too 
worthy of reliance to be doubted. Yet, being 
bound in honour to conceal the information and 
informant, both were kept in profound silence. 
It was generally supposed, however, that this 
event had taken place, because no man, afflicted 
as his Majesty was said to be, could possibly exist 
for any lengthened period. But in the then art 


of governing, there were frequently many circum- 
stances which were highly necessary to be con- 
cealed from the knowledge of the people. That 
precious trio, Sidmouth, Castlereagh, and Canning, 
environed the throne, and their dictatorial will 
was soon converted into law. Under their aus- 
pices, the already enormous standing army was 
still increased; while, like the tyrannical son of 
Philip, when he reprimanded Aristotle for pub- 
lishing his discoveries, they whispered to their 
myrmidons, "Let us diffuse darkness around the 
land. Let the people be kept in a brutal state. 
Let their conduct, when assembled, be riotous and 
irrational as ignorance and our spies can make 
it, that they may be brought into discredit, and 
deemed unfit for the management of their own 
affairs. Let power be rendered dangerous in 
their hands, that it may continue unmolested in 
our own. Let them not taste the fruit of the tree 
of knowledge, lest they become as wise as our- 
selves ! " Such were the political sentiments of 
those at the head of affairs at this period ; how 
successfully they acted upon them is too well 

The session opened in November, and never did 
ministers commit themselves more than by the 
speech then put into the mouth of the regent. It 
contained little else than vindictive sentiments, 
breathing vengeance on all who dared oppose the 
"powers that be," but seemed utterly forgetful of 


this good advice, " It is the sovereign's duty to ease 
with mercy's oil the sufferer's heart." 

The infamous and notorious "Six Acts" were 
introduced this session by '* the Oppressors," the 
principal object of which was to impose further 
restrictions on the freedom of the press. This 
plan was considered likely to be the most success- 
ful, as well as the most insidious, mode of abolish- 
ing the few liberties remaining to Englishmen^ 
Ministers thus thought to leave the form of our 
dearest safeguard untouched, and so gradually 
annihilate its essence. The voracious worm eats 
out the kernel completely, while the husk continues 
fair to the eye, and apparently entire. The hus- 
bandman would crush the insect, if it commenced 
the attack on the external tegument ; but it carries 
on the work of destruction with efficacy and 
safety, while it corrodes the unseen fruit, and 
spares the outside shell. At this despotic period, 
the press ^'as erected as a battery by the people 
to defend the almost vanquished citadel of their 
liberty ; but, by these acts, Castlereagh, instead of 
attacking this citadel, opened the dams, locks, and 
flood-gates, so that the waters might secretly 
undermine its foundation, when he hoped to see 
it fall ingloriously into the hands of its enemies. 
While these base deeds were being accomplished, 
no thoughts were bestowed upon the peo[)le's 
wretchedness, which stood in dread array against 
ministerial imbecility. Indeed, the servile papers 


in the pay of government not only stoutly denied 
that such distress existed, but made the grossest 
attempts to impose on the public credulity. Let 
any one read such papers of the period we are 
speaking, if the employment be not too nauseous, 
and they will there see known facts, if they mili- 
tated against the credit of the voluptuous regent, 
or his government, either doubted or denied ; un- 
certain victories extolled beyond all resemblance 
to truth ; and defeats, in the highest degree dis- 
graceful and injurious, artfully extenuated. Not- 
withstanding all this effrontery and falsehood, the 
" Six Acts " were still thought necessary to gag 
that which corruption and bribery could not render 
quite inefficient in the cause of truth. While con- 
templating such acts of tyranny, we are led to 
exclaim with Cato, when seeking out the little 
barren spot of Utica, " Wherever there, is a regard 
for liberty, justice, and humanity, there will we 
gladly take up our abode ; for there we shall find 
a country and a home ! " 

The extraordinary events that occurred in the 
year 1820 are so closely interwoven with the weal 
and woe of the British people that it may be con- 
sidered as one of the most serious periods in 
English history. 

On -the 15 th of January the Duke of Kent be- 
came indisposed with a severe cold. On the 17th 
of the same month it was reported "that his 
Royal Highnesses illness had assumed most alarm- 


ing symptoms ; '* and Sir David Dundas went ofiF 
expressly to Sidmouth to attend his Royal High- 
ness. The duke's disorder increased, and at half- 
past one p. M., January 23d, this prince was deprived 
of his mortal existence, in the fifty-third year of 
his age. But a few days before, his Royal High- 
ness was in good health, and in the prime of life. 
The public will one day be made acquainted with 
the particulars of the real cause of his death. At 
present, we shall only observe that his Royal High- 
ness was too virtuous to be allowed to live long 
in a vicious court I 

The public journals dwelt with much force upon 
the kind attentions and tender offices performed by 
the duchess, which, if true, were only what every 
good wife ought to have done. Who can be 
nearer to a wife than her husband ? and what lady 
of feeling and integrity would not blush to be 
negligent in the best services and the most un- 
wearied attentions to the ordained partner of her 
life ? Royalty, however, has so many and such 
peculiar privileges, that what is considered won- 
drous grace with them is merely thought common 
decency in the vulgar part of Adam's offspring. 

About this time, the king's health was stated to 
be ** very much on the decline " (hypocrisy ! ), and 
the journals announced " that George the Third 
expired without a struggle, on the 29th of Janu- 
ary, in the eighty-second year of his age, and the 
sixtieth of his reign.*' But we have the gratifi- 



cation of setting history right in this particular. 
Of course, the letters and notices of this intelli- 
gence were immediately forwarded by the appointed 
messengers to the several foreign courts. It would 
be unnecessary for us here to offer any remark 
upon the character of George the Third, as we 
have previously noticed the origin of that unhappy 
disease which so lamentably afflicted him during 
the latter years of his truly unfortunate life. His 
Majesty bequeathed a sum of money to each of his 
sons ; but George the Fourth thought proper to 
withhold the Duke of Sussex's portion. This un- 
just act was the primary cause of the quarrel be- 
tween these royal brothers, which lasted till the 
death of George the Fourth. But, as ** kings can 
do no wrong," little was thought of his Majesty's 
dishonesty. Monarchs are aware of their privi- 
l^es, and have, therefore, in many instances, not 
scrupled to commit the most heinous crimes. His 
late Majesty was one of this kind, and yet he was 
called, " His most gracious, religious, and benevo- 
lent Majesty." What a profanation of terms were 
these ! 

As a necessary preliminary to a new reign, 
George the Fourth was proclaimed in London on 
the 31st of the same month. 

In February a pretended mysterious political 
plot was publicly adverted to, by the name of " The 
Cato Street Conspiracy." It was said that infor- 
mation having been received at Bow Street, that 



a meeting of armed persons was to be held at a 
house in Cato Street, Mary-la-bonne, and, as the 
magistrates feared something serious would be 
the result, they forwarded a formidable body of 
their officers to the place. On the arrival of these 
persons, they found the number of men amounted 
to thirty, armed with guns, swords, daggers, and 
other weapons, and appeared ready to leave the 
place, which was a hayloft at the top of the house. 
The officers demanded an entrance, which was re> 
fused. Captain Fitzclarence then arrived, with a 
party of the guards, and a scene of much violence 
ensued. Some of the party were taken to Bow 
Street, which was lined with soldiers. The result 
proved serious to a police officer named Smythers. 
who was stabbed in the affray, which produced his 
death, and it was sworn that Arthur Thistlewood 
infficted the wound. 

TTiis heartrending tragedy was generally thought 
to have been produced by government spies ; in^ 
deed, several newspapers stated as much at the 
time. We, however, know such to have been the 
case, and that the characters of '* blcoc-hounds '* 
were but too well performed. Our bc»s<.'ms swell 
with indignation at the rect.llection of such mon- 
strous plots against the lives and liberties of our 
cojntrvmen, and we re2:ret that the plotters did 
not fall into their own >nares. 

On the morning: after this lamentable »>:currence 
a " Gazette Extraordinarv " was issuea, signed ** Sid- 



mouth,** offering one thousand pounds for the 
detection of Arthur Thistlewood, who stood charged 
with the crime of high treason. The reward had 
the desired efifect, as he was soon apprehended. 
Three of his companions were afterward taken, 
and five martyrs, in all, suffered as traitors on the 
1st of May. 

Let us not, in common with hirelings, talk of 
the " wisdom of ministers,** and the " bravery of 
the guards,** combined with the several loathsome 
execrations on artificers and agriculturists ; but let 
us inquire, is there no resemblance to be observed 
between this conspiracy and the Manchester mas- 
sacre? The intelligent reader will not find the 
similarity difficult to trace. 






! RcrigM t io tt of Ifr. Canmiis — Hit Public Oueer — Mr. 

\,l Bioa^am and tbe Queen — Reqoe^ for a Frigate — Fauis 

^ or Calais — Tlie Queen Dinet — A Courier to Faria — Tbe 

^"^ P lrogr c s a of Her Majesty — Entry into London — Prince Leo- 

U pold Tends His Respects — Danwing Comspondenee — 

^' ' Hisses by tbe Moltitode — Right and Jnatice the Shidd of 

L^ Enc^and's Qaeen — '^Bill of Pafaia and Penalties'* — Bran- 

\\ denbuigh House — Unhospitable Treatment — A Letter to 

Windsor-^ Sapient Speech of a Most Silent Lord — A 

I HE queen's return to England being 
now expected, Mr. Canning resigned his 
place in the Cabinet as president of the 
board of control, and retired to the Continent. 
One of his biographers says, ''His conduct on 
this occasion, according to universal consent, was 
marked by the most perfect correctness and deli- 
cacy of feeling." Perhaps it might be so consid- 
ered by some people ; but to us it does appear that 
a man of sound public principles, of high and hon- 
ourable private feelings, had no middle course to 
take at this juncture. Either the Queen of Eng- 
land was guilty, or she was the most persecuted 
and aggrieved of women. Will any one say that, 
in the first instance, it was the duty of a minister 
of high station to desert the painful, but respon- 


■ ifiKir I iKr 


sible, situation in which he stood, from any feeling 
of esteem or attachment to an individual so un- 
worthy ? In the other case, if Queen Caroline, as 
almost everybody believed, and as Mr. Brougham 
solemnly swore he believed, was innocent, was 
there any circumstance or consideration upon earth, 
— the wreck of ambition, the loss of fortune, or 
the fear of even death itself, — which should have 
induced an English gentleman, a man of honour, 
a man who had the feelings of a man, to leave 
a female, whom he called "friend,** beneath the 
weight of so awful an oppression ? To us, we 
must confess, Mr. Canning's conduct on this oc- 
casion appears one of the greatest blots we are 
acquainted with upon his public and private char- 
acter, the almost unequivocal proof of a mind 
unused to the habit of taking sound and elevated 
views of the human action. Mr. Canning had, 
during a long career, — a career continued through 
nearly thirty years, — been the forward and un- 
flinching opponent of popular principles and con- 
cessions. He had never once shrunk from 
abridging the liberties of the subject ; he had 
never once shown trepidation at any extraordinary 
powers demanded by the Crown. With his arms 
folded, and his looks erect, he had sanctioned, 
without scruple, the severest laws against the 
press ; he had advocated the arbitrary imprison- 
ment of the free citizen ; he had eulogised the 
forcible repression of public meetings ; and he had 


constantly declared himself tjie detennined e nemy 
trf parliamentary reform. The only subject cm 
which he professed liberal opinions (the Catholic 
question) was precisely that subject to which the 
great bulk of the community was indisposed. Such 
bad been the career, such was the character, of 
Mr. Canning up to the time of his cowardly deser- 
tion of the injured Caroling Queen of England. 

Her Majesty was now daily expected to land 
upon our shores; and, powerful as was the arm 
of tyranny, her arrival was much feared by her 
husband and his ministers. 

We have before mentioned that the queen de- 
sired several times, most particularly, to see Mr. 
Brougham. It is true that various places for 
meeting had been appointed; but some apology 
or other was invariably mad^ by the learned gen- 
tleman. Her Majesty finally wrote that she should 
be at St. Omers on a certain day, on her way to 
England, in the metropolis of which she was re- 
solved to arrive as soon as possible. Her Majesty 
had previously appointed Mr. Brougham her at- 
torney-general, desiring he would choose a solic- 
itor to act with him, and he named Mr. Denman. 
One excuse for not attending to his appointment 
with the queen, Mr. Brougham ascribed to his 
electioneering business in Westmoreland ; and 
another was Mrs. Brougham's being in a situa- 
tion too delicate for him to leave her. Such 
excuses ought not to have prevented Mr. Brough- 


aiTi's giving his attention to the important busi- 
ness of the queen ; indeed, he was once within 
four leagues of her Majesty's abode, with a certain 
letter in his pocket from the highest authorities ; 
but Mr. Brougham did not venture to lay it before 
the queen, nor did he seek for an interview. The 
commission thus entrusted to this learned gentle- 
man was the same which Lord Hutchinson under- 
took some time afterward. 

The queen felt very indignant at Mr. Brough- 
am's so repeatedly declining his engagements, 
and wrote to Lord Liverpool to request his lord- 
ship would send a frigate to convey her to 
England. Fearing, however, that this might be 
against the state projects then in contemplation, 
the queen, by the same post, wrote to her former 
friend and lady in waiting, Lady Anne Hamilton, 
to repair to her immediately at St. Omers, and 
attend her in her former capacity ; and also, to 
Alderman Wood, that if Lord Liverpool refused 
or delayed to send a frigate, the alderman would 
hire a vessel for the purpose of bringing her to 
this country immediately. 

Little time was lost in obeying these commands 
of the Queen of England. In the meantime Mr. 
Brougham wrote to her Majesty, requesting leave 
to meet her at Calais ; to which the queen replied, 
she should choose to see him at the inn at St. 
Omers. Shortly after the arrival of her Majesty's 
lady in waiting and the alderman, Mr. Brougham 




was announced, and informed her Majesty that he 
was accompanied by Lord Hutchinson (now Lord 
Donoughmore), the king's particular friend, who 
^ was the bearer of a message to her Majesty from 

, the king, and asked leave when he might have the 

honour of introducing him to her Majesty. " No, 
no, Mr. Brougham" (said the queen), " no conver- 
sations for me ; he must put it in writing, if you 
please ; we are at war at present." " But, madam, 
/ it is impossible that so many scraps of di£ferent 

^ conversations can be properly arranged." " Then 

I don't see Lord Hutchinson," said the queen, 
i '' Madam, if you insist upon it, it shall be done ; 

and when will your Majesty be pleased to receive 
it ? " " To-morrow morning you may bring it me ; 
and so good evening to you, as I suppose you are 
fatigued with your journey." 

The next morning Mr. Brougham arrived with 
Lord Hutchinson's letter, which the queen opened 
and read in Mr. Brougham's presence ; in the con- 
clusion of that letter, her Majesty was earnestly 
entreated to wait the return of a courier from 
Paris. "Paris! Paris!" said the queen, "what 
have I to do with Paris ? " Mr. Brougham, in 
much confusion, said, " Your Majesty must have 
mistaken ; it must mean Calais ; my friend is too 
honourable to mean anything of that kind, or to 
do anything wrong." " No, no, Mr. Brougham ; 
Paris, Paris ! Look there ! " pointing the sentence 
out to him. Then added the queeen, " You will 


come and dine with me to-day." "May not I 
bring Lord Hutchinson with me, please your Maj- 
esty ? *' " Certainly not." " But I hope you will 
see Lord Hutchinson?" "Yes; let him come 
directly." The queen then assembled her whole 
household, and received his lordship in the midst 
of a formal circle, talked upon indifferent subjects 
for about a quarter of an hour ; then rose, and, 
gracefully curtseying, left the room. Most of 
the household followed ; and Mr. Brougham, with 
his friend. Lord Hutchinson, did not remain long 
behind. Mr. Brougham afterward returned, but 
appeared exceedingly disconcerted. Lady Hamil- 
ton was present, and tried to draw him into con- 
versation upon various subjects ; but he answered^ 
rather abruptly, " You and the alderman are lead- 
ing the queen to her destruction." The lady 
replied, that was a mistake ; she did not interfere 
in political affairs. Mr. Brougham begged pardon, 
and the subject was ended by the queen entering 
the room to dinner. The dinner passed off very 
well ; her Majesty appeared in good spirits, as did 
Mr. Brougham. It was the queen's general prac- 
tice not to sit long after dinner; she, therefore, 
soon retired with her lady, and the gentlemen 
adjourned to the drawing-room to await the serv- 
ing of coffee. By her Majesty's orders, her maids 
were waiting with her travelling dress, with the 
carriages all ready in the courtyard, in the first of 
which her Majesty immediately seated herself, as 

'1 also Lady Hamilton and Alderman Wood. The 

'^ moment before her Majesty drove out of the yard, 

f she desired her maltre d'hdtel to inform Mr. 

i Brougham " that the queen would drink coffee 

5 with him in London ; *' yet five minutes had not 

t\ elapsed from leaving the dinner-table to her driv- 

If ing out from the inn, as fast as four post-horses 

could convey her. This was the only time her 
Majesty was ever known to show fear; but, at 
the appearance of any horseman, she became very 
much agitated from the supposition that she should 
be detained in France, under a pretence of not 
having a correct passport, the want of horses, or 
some such trivial excuse. The queen was aware 
that the King of England had, not long before, 
placed Louis the Eighteenth upon the throne of 
France ; therefore he could not object to any 
proposition her husband thought proper to re- 
quire. Her Majesty also knew that a courier had 
been despatched to Paris, and that that courier was 
1' one of Mr. Brougham's brothers. Mr. Brougham 

himself actually joined with Lord Hutchinson 
in trying to persuade her Majesty to remain in 
France till the return of the courier. The queen's 
active and intelligent mind saw everything at a 
glance, and she acted with the promptitude of 
her character. Alderman Wood proposed that 
her Majesty should rest that night at D'Estaing s 
fine hotel at Calais, instead of sleeping on board 
a common packet, which would not sail till the 



morning. "No, no/' said the queen, "drive 
straight to the shore;" and out she got, like a 
girl of fifteen, and was in the packet before any- 
one else. "There," said her Majesty, "now I 
can breathe freely, — now I am protected by Eng- 
lish laws." The queen was hardly seated, when 
Alderman Wood presented her with a note from 
Mr. Brougham, entreating her Majesty to return, 
if only for the night, to D*Estaing's, and promising 
that no harm should happen to her. "No, no," 
replied the queen, " I am safe here, and I will not 
trust him ; " and then threw a mattress in the 
middle of her cabin, with some blankets, and 
slept there all night. In the morning, when her 
Majesty was about to land at Dover, she seemed 
a little intimidated, in consequence of the dense 
multitude through which she had to pass. Her 
Majesty's fears, however, were entirely ground- 
less, as she soon found the hearts of Britons were 
friendly to her cause, though they exemplified it 
rather roughly ; for her feet were never permitted 
to touch the ground from the time her Majesty 
left the vessel till her arrival at the inn, which she 
availed herself of with feelings of the most grati- 
fying description, at the sympathy manifested in 
the cause of persecuted virtue. 

As soon as her Majesty could procure horses, 
she set forward to Canterbury, where she was 
received with similar acclamations. The populace 
insisted upon drawing her Majesty out of the 


town, and then would not suffer the horses to 
be put to without her personal entreaties. Thou- 
sands of blessings were poured on her head, with- 
out one dissenting voice, and in this manner did 
her Majesty proceed all the way to London. 

The queen took up her abode at jj South 
Audley Street until another more suitable resi- 
dence could be provided for her. The family of 
Alderman Wood, who previously inhabited this 
house, left it immediately after receiving intelli- 
gence that her Majesty would make a temporary 
use of it, and they occupied apartments at Flag- 
don's hotel. 

On the ensuing day several of the nobility and 
members of the House of Commons called to 
inquire after her Majesty's health. On the 9th 
of this month her Majesty removed from South 
Audley Street to 32 Portman Square, the resi- 
dence of the Right Honourable Lady Anne 
Hamilton, by whom the queen was attended. 
Her ladyship's servants were continued, and her 
Majesty was much pleased with the respectful and 
generous attentions rendered. 

On the 1 6th the queen received an address 
from the common council of the city of London, 
to which she returned an answer so feelingly 
expressed as to excite the sympathy and admira- 
tion of all present. 

On the afternoon of the sixth day of the 
queen's entry into London a message was de- 


livered from the king to both Houses of Parlia- 
ment, communicating certain reports and papers 
respecting the queen's misconduct while abroad. 
On the following Thursday a committee was ap- 
pointed in the House of Lords ; but the queen 
transmitted a communication to the House of 
Commons, protesting against the reference of her 
accusations to a secret tribunal, and soliciting an 
open investigation of her conduct. 

Thus was commenced a prosecution in principle 
and object every way calculated to rouse the gen- 
erous and constitutional feelings of the nation, and 
the effects were without parallel in the history of 
all countries! Could a more outrageous insult 
possibly have been offered to her dignity, to the 
honour of her husband, the king, or to the moral- 
ity and decency of the community at large ? 

Up to this time. Prince Leopold had not ten- 
dered his respects to her Majesty; yet he was the 
widowed husband of the queen's only and dearly 
beloved daughter. His Serene Highness had 
been raised from a state of comparative poverty 
and obscurity to be honoured with the hand of 
England's favourite princess, from whose future 
reign was expected a revival of commerce and an 
addition of glory. Though this prince was enjoy- 
ing an annual income of fifty thousand pounds 
from the country ; though he had town and coun- 
try residences, of great extent and magnificent 
appearance ; though he abounded with horses and 


carriageSi yet not one offer did he make of any of 
these superfluous matters to the mother of hi» 
departed wife, by whose means he^had become 
possessed of them all. Gratitude^ however, is 
generally esteemed a virtue and therefore a Ger- 
man prince could not be supposed to know any* 
thing about it 

About this period her Majesty received numer- 
ous communications tending to prove the infa- 
mous proceedings against hereto have been adopted 
without reference to honour or principle and tO' 
warn her from falling into the snares of her mer-^ 
cenaiy and vindictive enemies. We lay before 
our readers the following, as sufficient to establish 
this fact : 

''An officer of the frigate which took h«r 
Majesty (when Princess of Wales) to the Conti- 
nent averred, in the presence of three unimpeach- 
able witnesses, that a very few days before her 
Majesty's embarkation, Captain King, while sit- 
ting at breakfast in his cabin with the surgeon of 
the frigate, received a letter from a brother of 
the prince regent, which he read aloud, in the 
presence of the said surgeon, as follows : 

" ' Dear King : — You are going to be ordered 
to take the Princess of Wales to the Continent. 
If you don't commit adultery with her, you are a 
damned fool ! You have my consent for it, and I 

■,^^^ j.-'kfc k 


can assure you that you have that of my brother, 
the regent. 

" ' Yours, 

(Signed) "• .' 

"The officer who made the above statement 
and declaration is a most creditable person, and 
the witnesses are all in this country. 

" London, May 7, 1820. 
"Furnished to supply the queen with proof 
that the royal duke in question is leagued against 
her, in accordance with the wishes of the king ! 


"'Captain King's agent is Mr. Stillwell, 22 
Arundel Street, Strand, London, and the sur- 
geon who was present during the period the 
royal duke's letter was read is James Hall. 
The witnesses were — Mr. Freshfield, 3 Token- 
house Yard ; Mr. Holmes, 3 Lyon's Inn ; and 
Mr. Stokoe, 2 Lancaster Court ; as also before 
Barry O'Meara. 

(Signed) " * Barry E. O'Meara.' " 

On the 24th of June a deputation of the House 
of Commons was appointed to wait upon her 
Majesty with the resolutions adopted by the 
House on Thursday, the 22d. They arrived at 
a quarter-past one o'clock. Mr. Wilberforce and 


Mr. S. Wortley occupied the first carriage. At 

their appearance, strong symptoms of displeasure 

j were indicated. They were then introduced 

, to the queen, Mr. Brougham standing at her Maj- 

/ esty's right hand, and Mr. Denman at her left. 

They severally knelt and kissed her Majesty's 
hand. Mr. Wilberforce then read the resolutions, 
* and her Majesty replied to them. On their depar- 

\ ture Mr. Brougham accompanied the deputation 

I to the door; and, after they had taken their 

I seats in the carriages, Mr. Brougham returned to 

i shake hands with them, although the multitudes 

t assembled outside hissed them exceedingly. 

Her Majesty's answer to the before-mentioned 
resolutions was superior to the tricks of her 
enemies. In it the queen refused terms of con- 
ciliation, unless they accorded with her duty to 
her own character, to the king, and to the nation ! 
"A sense of what is due to my character and 
sex,*' said the queen, "forbids me to refer 
minutely to the real cause of our domestic dif- 
ferences/* Indeed, her Majesty's reply was an 
appeal to those principles of public justice which 
should be alike the safeguard of the highest and 
the humblest individuals. Mr. Wilberforce ex- 
posed himself to much censure upon the part he 
had taken in the House ; and, as he so unhesitat- 
ingly hinted, at the awful contents of the " Green 
Bag,*' he said, "by suppressing her own feelings, 
the queen would endear herself to the country." 


We suppose Mr. Wilberforce meant that, by sup- 
pressing her own feelings of honour, she would 
gratify the honour of the country ; and, by again 
quitting it, demonstrate her gratitude for its un- 
shaken loyalty; but the queen was firm in her 
resolve to claim justice, whether it was given or 

In considering these base endeavours to injure 
innocence, in order to raise the noble character of 
a voluptuous prince, we cannot help remarking 
that power was the only weapon of the vitiated 
monarch, while right and justice formed the shield 
of the oppressed Queen of England. Indeed, every 
man, glowing with the sincere love of his country, 
and actuated by that honourable affection for its 
welfare which takes a lively and zealous interest in 
passing events, must have considered such proceed- 
ings against her Majesty fraught with inevitable 
evil. If her innocence, according to the prayers 
of millions of her subjects, should be made mani- 
fest, the public indignation would be sure to be 
roused, and probably prove resentful. The evi- 
dence was known to be of a description on which 
no magistrate would convict a common pickpocket, 
and, therefore, if the legislature should even be 
induced to consider her Majesty guilty of the 
charges preferred against her, public opinion would 
certainly refuse to ratify the sentence, and turn 
with disgust from those promulgating it. In either 
case, those venerable tribunals, consecrated by our 







forefathers, must lose that beautiful, that honour- 
^f able, that unbought, homage which a free people 

have ever been proud to pay them. No English- 
man, we say, accustomed to reverence, with a 
prejudice almost sacred, the constitution of a Par- 
J liament, majestic even in its errors and infirmities, 

•j could contemplate, without pain, the possibility — 

1 nay, the almost certainty — that the hour was not 

J far distant when the whole nation would look with 

cold indifference, or gloomy distrust, on the acts of 
a senate, their generous obedience to which (though 
,:* it had been accompanied with suffering, and fol- 

.^ lowed by privation) had been " the admiration of 

•; the whole world." 

^ On the 6th of July Sir Thomas Tyrwhitt, usher 

# of the black rod, waited upon her Majesty with a 

r copy of the " Bill of Pains and Penalties '* against 

■ her, presented the previous day to the House of 

Lords, and which was forwarded by order of their 
lordships. Her Majesty went into the room where 
the deputation were waiting, and received a copy of 
this bill with great calmness. Upon an examination 
of the abominable instrument, her Majesty said, 
" Yes, the queen who had a sufficient sense of hon- 
our and goodness to refuse the base offer of fifty 
thousand pounds a year of the public money, to 
spend it when, where, how, and with whom she 
pleased, in banquetings, feastings, and excesses, 
providing it were in a foreign country, and not at 
home, has sufficient resolution to await the result 



of every investigation power can suggest." Like 
another Cleopatra, our insulted queen might have 
played " the wanton " with impunity ; her imperial 
bark might have displayed its purple streamers, 
swelled with the softest Cyprian breezes. It might 
have sailed triumphantly down the Adriatic, to 
meet some highly favoured lover. Yes, by desire 
of the king, her husband, the queen was requested 
to accept any terms beside those of a legitimate 
character. But her Majesty preserved her usual 
firmness and serenity of mind during the unequalled 
proceedings instituted against her, and frequently 
repeated the unequivocal expression, "Time will 
furnish sufficient proof of my innocence." 

On the sth of August the queen took posses- 
sion of Brandenburg House, formerly the residence 
of the Margravine of Anspatch, situated near the 
Thames, and in the parish of Hammersmith. Her 
Majesty left Lady Hamilton's house at four o'clock, 
attended by her ladyship, and accompanied by Doc- 
tor Lushington, in an entirely new and elegant open 
carriage, drawn by four beautiful bay horses. They 
drove off amidst united shouts of applause from the 
assembled people. 

Will future generations believe the historian's 
tale, that a queen — yes, a brave and virtuous 
Queen of England, too ! — was refused a house and 
a home by the sovereign, her husband } That she, 
who was lured from her princely home, arrived in 
the centre of England, and was denied a resting- 






f^ place by the king and his ministers! In conse- 

y, quence of which, she was necessitated to take up 

}] her abode in the mansion of a late lord mayor for 

'» the space of three days, and then to accept the use 

i of the house of her lady in waiting for nearly two 

i months ; while there were palaces totally unoccu- 

pied, and even mouldering into decay for want of 
being inhabited. This statement will, doubtless, 
appear overdrawn to future generations ; but there 
are thousands now living who can testify to its 
accuracy. Ministers, indeed, entered into compact 
with deception, and so glaringly committed their 
sentiments and characters that, to preserve their 
own pretended consistency, they would have even 
uncrowned the king himself. A feverish sensation 
I now pervaded the whole public mind, and, from the 

i highest to the lowest, the case of the queen was 

f one universal theme of conversation. 

. On the 6th of August her Royal Highness the 

1 Duchess of York died. Up to a very late hour of 

the day on which this occurred, no official commu- 
nication had been made to the queen ; but, in con- 
sequence of the event, her Majesty requested to 
postpone several addresses which she had previously 
appointed to receive. 

On the 7th the queen sent a letter to the king, 
but it was returned from Windsor unopened, with a 
communication that " such a letter addressed to the 
king cannot be received by his Majesty, unless it 
passes through the hands of his minister.** Why, 

. 'jji 


after the refusal to receive this letter, should the 
princess be blamed for permitting its contents to 
be published ? If the king were under obligations 
of such a description as to incapacitate him from 
exercising his own judgment, and giving his own 
opinion, was he fit to administer the laws, or ought 
he to have sanctioned the appeal of miscreants who 
sought their own, and not their country's, good ? 
Let us consider the delays attending this letter. 
It was sent to Windsor, directed expressly for the 
king, accompanied with a note, written by the 
queen, to Sir B. Bloomfield, desiring it might be 
immediately delivered into the king's hand. Sir 
B. Bloomfield was absent, and Sir W. Keppell, as 
the next in command, received it, and forwarded 
the same to Sir B. Bloomfield, at Carlton House, 
immediately, who returned the letter on the 8th 
to her Majesty, saying, " I have received the king's 
commands and general instructions, that any com- 
munications which may be made should pass 
through the hands of his Majesty's government." 
The queen immediately despatched a letter to 
Lord Liverpool, enclosing the one she had ad- 
dressed to the king, by the hands of a messenger, 
in which her Majesty desired the earl to present it. 
Lord Liverpool was then at Coombe Wood, and 
wrote in reply, that he would " lose no time in lay- 
ing it before his Majesty." Up to the nth, no 
reply had been received ; and the queen wrote to 
Lord Liverpool again, to know if further communi- 


cation were needful Lord Liverpool rqdied that 
he had not received the king's commands upcm the 
subject, and, therefore, could not give any positive 
answer relative to it How does this strange and 
incomprehensible conduct appear to any unbiassed 
Englishman ? Was the king; who ought to be the 
dispenser of the laws, to be free from imputation, 
when he thus exposed his unrelenting temper and 
unbending determination, wherever his private ior 
dinations were concerned ? We dare avow, if that 
letter could have been answered, it would ; but its 
contents were unanswerable. **Ay," said the 
hireling Castlereagh, <<it is no matter what the 
conduct of the Princess of Wales has been ; it is 
the king's desire that he may no more be obliged 
to recognise her in her former character of Prin- 
cess 'of Wales." Oh, most sapient speech of a 
most sapient lord I truly this was a bold doctrine 
to broach, that kings have a right divine to subdu^ 
injure, oppress, and govern wrong. 

We pass by the number of addresses presented 
to her Majesty at this period, and also the not-to- 
be-mistaken expression of public opinion against 
the projector of her injuries. Were they not con- 
cocted by the authority of the monarch, her hus- 
band ? Was it not by his divine decree that his 
consort's name was erased from the liturgy ? Did 
he not send down to Parliament that message 
which denounced his queen a criminal ? Yet, 
after all this. Lord Liverpool said, "The king 


has no personal feeling upon the subject." Very 
true, his Majesty could not have any personal 
feeling toward the queen; his royal feelings 
had always been confined to the libidinous and 
the most obnoxious of society. Had he been a 
worthy and upright plaintiff against the most un- 
fortunate of defendants, would he have scrupled 
to have shown himself in his regal chair upon the 
continued debates arising from this most important 
question ; and would not a sense of greatness and 
virtue, had he possessed either, after hearing the 
infamous statements of false witnesses, have in- 
fluenced him to decline further proceedings, though 
his pride might have withheld an acknowledgment 
of error .^ This line of honest conduct was not 
followed, and we are therefore obliged to brand 
him as one of the most despicable and mean of 
the human race. 




Abercom, Earl of, offers infor- 
mation, 5. 
Abingdon, Lord, speech of, 49, 

So,Si, $2, 53, 54. 

Adams, Mr. Samuel Thomas, 
addresses the jury in connec- 
tion with the "Sellis" mur- 
der, 147 ; reads an affidavit, 
189 // sef. 

Addington, Mr., a tool in 
others* hands, 117; raised 
to peerage, 1 24. 

Albemarle, Lord ; surrender 
of Havana, 9; and prize 
money, 14. 

Amelia, the Princess, and King 
George IIL, 202. 

America, revolt of the'colonies, 

Annet, Peter, sentenced, 10. 

Augsburgh, city of, 269. 

Augustus, King of Poland, 

death of, 12. 

Baillie, Doctor, at inquest, 31 7. 

Ball, James, footman of the 
Duke of Cumberland, testi- 
fies in the "Sellis" murder 
trial, 1 68. 

Barr^, Madame du, and Louis 
XV, 37. 

Bartassima, chosen for a duel, 

Bates, the Rev. Mr., created a 
baronet, 341. 

Bathurst, Lord, offers informa- 
tion, 291. 

Belgrave, Lord, opposes Mr. 
NichoPs motion in the 
House, 115. 

Bell, Mr. H. N., engaged in a 
conspiracy, 345. 

Bennet, Mr., speaks in Com- 
mons, 264. 

Bloomfield, Ix>rd, actor in 
traced V, 319. 

Brandenburg House, taken 
possession of by Queen 
Caroline, 381. 

Brougham, Mr., interview with, 
358 ; appointed attorney- 
general, 368 ; conversations 
with Queen Caroline, 370 
</ se^.; receives a deputa- 
tion, 378. 

Brunswick, Duchess of, letter 
from George III., 94; visits 
England, 132-133; her 
death and its effect upon the 
Princess of Wales, 235. 

Brunswick, Princess Caroline 
of, victim of deception, 90; 
letter from Prince of W^es 
to, 91, 92 ; letter from George 
III. to, 93 ; reply to letter of 
the prince, 99, 100 ; prepara- 






tioii to foottTO hflfy 100 { 
anivml in England and mar- 
riage, iHd. ; treatment of, X09 
(for other referencei, aee 
Princeaa of Wales, and 
Queen Caroline). 

Brunswick, William, Duke of, 
is killed at Jena, 130; his 
character and relations to 
the Princess of Wales, ibid, ; 
•'BUI of Pains and Penal- 
ries," 380. 

Burke, Edmund, is disliked, 
38; with Prince of Wales, 
60; attends his marriage to 
Mrs. Fitsherbert, 65. 

Bute, Lord, resigns office, 10; 
accosts Doctor Wilmo^ 27. 

Calcraft, Mr., makes a motion 
in Parliament, 116. 

Cambridge, Duke of, informed 
of Princess Chariotte's 
death, 291. 

Canada, ceded to England, 9. 

Canning, George, and Pitt, 84; 
appointed treasurer of navy, 
122 ; as a friend of the Prin- 
cess of Wales, 130 ; a duel 
with Mr. Castlereagh, 144; 
visits Princess Caroline, 253 ; 
urges advice, 254; returns 
to office, 274 ; arbiter of fate, 
287; vain opinions of, 313; 
as a principal officer, 355; 
member of a precious trio, 
359 ; resigns his place in the 
Cabinet, 366. 

Cantenogh, the Count, 282. 

Canterbury, Archbishop of, at 
christening, 9. 

Carleton, Sir Guy, treats with 
Gen. George Washington, 

Carlton House, 70, 291, 383. 

Caroline, Queen, returns to 
England, 369 et seq, 

Castlereagh, Lord, challenges 

Mr. Canning to a diiel« 144; 
rdations to Lord and Laid j 
Douglaa, 234; consulted bj 
Queen Chailotte, ^4 9; 
makes a pariiamentaij mo- 
tion and remarks, 255$ 
arbiter of fate, 287 ; as dlSa^ 
tor, 288; makes a leoona- 
mendation, 310 ; vain opinicNi 
^9 3^3! plans of, 316; and 
Geoige IIL's death, 388; 
as a principal officer, 3^5; 
at a despotic period, 360; 
some remariLS, 384. 

** Cato Street Conspiracy," 363. 

Cavalotti, Baron, dehven a 
challenge, 28a 

Charlotte, the PrinoeM* 
birth of, 105 s relations with 
her mother, 205; is placed 
under the preo^tonh^ of 
Doctor Nott, 200; is inter- 
viewed by Queen Chariotte 
because of her affection for 
Doctor Nott, 207; makes 
her will in favour of her 
lover, 210; interviewed by 
Mr. Perceval (the premier), 
211 ; attains her eighteenth 
year, 249; her ingonuooa- 
ness, 250; marriage an* 
nounced to Leopold of 
Saze-Cobourg, 269; rdarions 
to Prince of Orange, 271 ; 
marriage, 273 ; and the peo- 
ple, 287; her death, 290; 
details of last illness, 295 
et seq. ; burial, 306. 

Charlotte, Queen, of Eng- 
land ; attitude toward Amer- 
ica, 43 ; and the Irish, 48 ; 
her position as wife of the 
king, 74, 75 ; refers the Prince 
of Wales's debts to the king, 
87 ; speculates in stocks, 137 ; 
and Doctor Randolph, 138, 
139; ber ungenerous con- 
duct, 141; treatment of a 



royal creditor, 142; is 
obliged by etiquette to hear 
bulletins of the king's health, 
203 ; interviews the Princess 
Charlotte about the atten- 
tions of Doctor Nott, 207; 
has a stormy interview with 
the princess, 223 ; determines 
not to allow her to see her 
child, 229; letters to the 
princess, 252 ; is ill, 260 ; 
again indisposed, 286 ; treat- 
ment of the dying Princess 
Charlotte, 293 ; interviews 
an author, 301 ; enmity to 
Princess of Wales, 320; re- 
lation to murder of princess, 
321 ; her death, 322 ; burial, 
323; character, 324, 333. 
Chatham, Lord, endeavours to 
find Miss Lightfoot, 6; his 
sentiments toward the con- 
stitution, 23 ; is introduced to 
Doctor WUmot, 27 ; makes 
representations of improper 
penal laws, 34, 35; and 
America, 38, 39; addresses 
the " Peers," 44 ; rebuffs 
from Queen Charlotte, 333, 


Claremont, scene of an un- 
fortunate event, 318. 

Clarence, Duke of, begins bis 
parliamentary career, 82 ; 
at the Princess Charlotte's 
funeral, 306 ; solicitations 
upon intended marriage with 
the Princess of Saxe-Meinin- 
gen, 320. 

Clark, Mrs. Mary Ann, ap- 
pears as witness against 
Duke of York, 136. 

Clogher, Bishop of, exculpates 
himself by an affidavit, 

Cohaky, Countess of, is mar- 
ried to Duke of Saze-Co- 
bourg, 270. 

Cook, Mr., barrister and writer 
of eminence, 311. 

Crade, Piqueur, seduced into 
a betrayal, 283. 

Creedy, Thomas, private in 
the Coldstream Regiment of 
Guards, 170; testifies in the 
** Sellis ** murder case, 170. 

Creighton, Sergeant, of the 
Coldstream Foot Guards, 
testifies in the " Sellis " mur- 
der case, 166. 

Croft, Dr. Sir Richard, makes 
an announcement, 291 ; re- 
lations with I^rince Leopold, 
292 ; with the Princess Char- 
lotte, 294; an opinion of 
his ability, 299. 

Crosby, Lord Mayor, and Al- 
derman Wilkes, 30. 

Cumberland, Duke of, death, 
16; introduces Chatham to 
Doctor Wilmot, 27 ; marries 
Mrs. Horton, 31 ; catches the 
fainting Lord Chatham, 45 ; 
affidavit in connection 
with the murder of his ser- 
vant, Sellis, 148, 149; his 
bedroom examined by the 
jury, 157 ; as author, 357. 

D'Ompteda, Baron, corre- 
spondence with Dumont, 

Douglas, Lady; see Douglas, 

Douglas, Lord, spies upon the 
Princess of Wales, 128; 
makes malicious reports 
about her conduct, 129; is 
upbraided by Mr. C. John- 
stone, 233. 

Dumont, carries on a corre- 
spondence, 312. 

Dundas, Mr. Henry, a corrupt 
minister, 87. 

Dunning, Mr., and Irish affairs, 
47 ; fais famous resolution, 

Kpfpwt, Ekri fliiUMcntuj 

niM, kbad e^ aS4. 
Stdoa, Lord, and 

IIL** duth, r}8. 
EncnboTongh, Loid, tn cao> 

DBction with the -SeUU" 

mtudm trial, iga 
EnUne, Hr., aappcrts Graf in 

Ae Honia, 83. 

t. 317- . 

C^Tod bf tbo queen, 67 
coofeta with the pitatce^ 90; 
teappeuance in aodMj, ijj. 

tta, Chailw Jamea, diallked, 
38 1 and ^dbnrna, 59 ; coali- 
tion with Lord Noith, J9; 
advocatea astUttng E^nce 
of Walea, fo; preunt at hla 
mvriage to Mn. Fitiherbert, 
tij; and Hr. Rolls, 68; as 
apeaker in Commoni, 7S ; 
jolni the miniatiy, 117; hia 
diatfa. Hid.; bis chiiitcter 
and public IUb, MJ. 

Fos, Colonel, name auumed 
by the Prince of Wales, 246. 

Frederick, Duke of York, birth 
of. i: 

Garth, Captain, tdrth of. So. 

" G a I e 1 1 a Eitraordinaiy," 

signed Sidmoutb, 364. 
Genoa, an attempt at assassina- 

lion in, 283. 
George Augustus Frederick, 

Prince, biilh of, 9. 
George the Second, an act to 

prevent his mariiage, 33. 
George the Third, pressed by 

HiBlllllh TJgtitfftnt, j> 

comw iadi^MMd, 13; cioar- 
■cter of,ao: atataof ha^th 
in 1788^ 77; and dt« Princ* 
o( Walaa^ dabl% 87, 88 { and 
Edward, Ua bcMbar^ km, 
oo; wiitaa a letter to Cmo- 
fina of Bnmswick, 93 ; wAum 
to Oe Dadieai ef &wnawkk, 
94 i hia Ufe twke atteiqttm^ 
■ti{ UataeaUt tn 1804, i« ; 

i4ti ««1 Frederick. 
Dnlce or York, 337; daKdi. 

Geasa tlte Favtli, aa pdnce, 
355 1 aacMtda the throne, 363. 

G«nld( patriotic nMrtyr, 8& 

Glouceater, Dnke of, si^poeed 
mairiage to Connteaa Dow- 
ager of Wald^rave, 331 
marriage with Prlnceea Uaiy, 

Gordon, Lord George^ cou- 
mltted to Tower, 55. 

Gordon, Mr. R, apeech fn 
Commons, 363. 

Grafton, Duke of, reugns hia 
office, 13, 38. 

Grasham, Matthew Henry, aa 
servant of Duke of Cumber- 
land, testifies as a witness 
in the " Sellis " murder case, 

Grjme, Colonel, appointed 
master of St. Catherine, 

Grenville, Ur. George, suc- 
ceeds Lord Bute, II. 

Grey, Mr., moves a question 
in the House, 83. 

GriAlhs, Mis, relations with 



Prince Leopold, 307 ; state- 
ment of death of Princess 
Charlotte, 308. 

*< Habeas Corpus Act," sus- 
pended, 287. 

Halifax, Earl of, secretary of 
state, 1 1 ; death of, 32. 

Hamilton, Lord A., speaks in 
Commons, 265. 

Hamilton, Mrs. General, her 
apartments engaged for a 
clergyman and daughters, 
245; drives with a young 
lady, 246. 

Hamilton, Right Hon. Lady 
Anne, 369, 372, 374 ; accom- 
panies Queen Caroline, 381. 

Harcourt, Earl of, charged 
with breach of privilege, 39. 

Harcourt, Lord, advises Prin- 
cess of Wales, 5. 

Hardy, is acquitted, 86. 

Havana, surrender of, 9. 

Hertford, Marquis of, medical 
knowledge of, 319. 

Home, Sir Everard, makes a 
statement in the " Sellis " 
murder trial, 179, 180. 

Hunt, Mr., and the Manchester 
tragedy, 350; his popularity, 

Hutchinson, Mr., and Lord 

Brougham, 370, 371, 372. 

Jersey, Lady, and the Prince 
of Wales, 106 ; assists Queen 
Charlotte in sale of East 
India cadetships, 138; re- 
lations with the Princess of 
Wales, 236, 237. 

Jesuits, Society of, abolished 
by King of France, 14. 

Jew, Mr., makes a deposition 
in the *' Sellis " murder trial, 

John, King, and the barons, 

Johnstone, Mr. C, submits a 
motion to Parliament, 233. 

Jones, Thomas, surgeon and 
apothecary, examined as wit- 
ness in the ^ Sellis " murder 
case, 159. 

Jordan, Mrs., death of, 274. 

** Junius, Letters of," 24 ; and 
the author, Doctor Wilmot, 

Kent, Duke of, is friendly to 
the Princess of Wales, 129; 
exerts himself to obtain set- 
tlement of East India cadet- 
ship scandal, 139; enters 
into marriage engagement, 
262 ; an announcement is 
made to, 291 ; united to 
sister of Prince Leopold, 320 ; 
his death, 362. 

King's Bench, Court of, sen- 
tences Peter Aimet, 10. 

Latham, Doctor, at inquest, 

Leech, Mr., chancery barrister, 

Le^is, Mrs., a spy upon her 

Royal Highness, 309. 

Libel, law of, 12. 

Lightfoot, Hannah, and 
George III., 3 ; is disposed 
of, 6. 

Liverpool, Earl of, 355. 

Liverpool, Lord, appointed 
first lord of the treasury, 
218; hints at popular dis- 
satisfaction, 219; mention 
of interview with Princess of 
Wales, 236 ; an arbiter of 
fate, 287 ; consulted, 309 ; 
pushes the country, 316 ; and 
George III.'s death, 338; 
requested for a frigate, 369 ; 
recipient of a letter, 383 ; 
remarks by, 384 et seq. 



LondoAy citj o^ pfltltloiit 
PaiUamant lor raform, 135. 

Lonit the FlftMoth, diM, t7. 

LattreUy Cdioiiel, and Mn. 
Horton, 31. 

BCanchestor, meedng for logb- 

lative reform, 344. 
Mamrot, a pateiodc martyr, 

Mary, the Princess, marries the 
Duke of Gloucester, 177. 

Hecklenberg-Strelita, Princess 
Charlotte of, hand de- 
manded by ministen of 
Geoige ni^ 4; is manled 
to that king, 5. 

Methuen, Mr^ makes oonten- 
don, 266. 

M'Mahon, Colonel, and the 
Prince of Wales, 109; is 
made private secretary, a 14; 
receives appeals of Princess 
Caroline to Princess of 
Wales, 241; an adventnre 
at Marlborough, 243 ; writes 
a letter to prince, 244 ; baits 
a clergyman and his two 
daughters to London, 245. 

Mflan, commission of, 311; 
residence of Princess of 
Wales, 358. 

Moira, Lord, author of an in- 
vestigation, 340. 

Montgomery, Sir H., speaks in 
Commons, 266. 

Morgan, Joseph Lloyd, state- 
ment of, 332. 

Muir, a patriotic martyr, 86. 

Munster, Earl of, relations to 
Mrs. Jordan, 275. 

Napoleon I., and invasion of 
England, 123. 

N e a 1 e, Anne, housekeeper, 
examined as witness in 
" Sellis '* murder case, 160. 

Neale, as valet to the Duke of 

CwidMriand, 140; Ua 

neat in the <*SeQis'' trkO, 

150; is questioned by the 


his evidenoe, 153, 154. 

Newnham, Mr^ reimtkMis to 
motion to rdieve the Mbioe 
of Wales, 6a. 

Nichol, Mr., offers a par- 
liamentary resdntioii, 115. 

Nordi, Lord, snoceeda Due 
of Gtafton, 23s a lavomite 
with die queen, 38; and 
public <»imon, 47; biioga 
forward budget, 57 ; lestgiis, 
58; and Fox, 50. 

North BrUmh fiit and Jobn 
Wilkes, II. 

Nott, Doctor, sdected as the 
preceptor of Princess Char- 
lotte, 206 ; made recipient of 
her will, 210 ; recelvea a good 
living for giving it to Pdnoe 
of Wales, aid. 

Nottingham, County of, onrits 
raising militia, 37. 

Nugent, Lord, q)eaks in the 
House of Commons, 265. 

Ompteda, Baron, employed by 

Prince of Wales, 279. 
Orange, Prince of, e3q;>ecfration 

of marriage, 271. 

Palmer, a patriotic mart3rr, 86. 

Parker, Mr., and TM^ Gemral 
Advertiser y 48. 

Paulet, James, valet of the 
Duke of Cumberland, testi- 
fies in the ** Sellis " murder 
trial, 173. 

Perceval, Mr. (as premier), in- 
terviews the Princess Char- 
lotte, 2 1 1 ; is assassinated, his 
life, and services, 215, 216, 
217, 218 ; makes a statement 
concerning the Perigoux and 
Co. bonds, 220. 



Perigooz and Co., Paris, bonds 
given them by Princes 
George, Frederick, and 
William, 220. 

Piqueur Grade, is seduced into 
a betrayal, 283. 

Pitt, Mr., and John Wilkes, 
1 1 ; first speech in Commons, 
57; made chancellor of ex- 
chequer, 59; made "First 
Lord of Treasury," 60 ; and 
the king, 62, 63 ; checks the 
Irish, 63 ; with the Prince of 
Wales, 64; reply in the 
House of Commons, 69; 
relations to abolition of 
slavery, 82; and Mr. Can- 
ning, 84 ; his administration 
corrupt, 96; his character, 
97 ; taxation and the queen, 
no; appoints Canning 
treasurer of navy, 122; 
health declines, 123; his 
death, 124; his record and 
character, 125, 126, 127; 
achievements of his princi- 
ples, 137 ; interview with the 
Princess of Wales, 238. 

Place, Francis, makes remarks 
upon the ** Adams *' affidavit 
in the ** Sellis " murder case, 
195, 196, 197, 198, 199. 

Pococke, Admiral, 9. 

Poland, partition of, 36. 

Portland, Duke of, 59. 

Powell, Mr^ of Milan commis- 
sion, 311. 

Randolph, Doctor, as manager 
of Queen Charlotte's sale of 
East India cadetships, 138. 

Richmond, Duke of, proposals, 

Robinson, Mrs., and the Prince 

of Wales, 61. 
Rock, Captain, 31a 
Rockingham, Marquis of, 58; 

death of, 59. 

Romilly, Sir Samuel, offers 

opposition, 314. 
** Royal Marriage Act," 3, 4. 

Salms, Princess of, marries 
Duke of Cumberland, 263. 

Sawrau, Count, as governor, 

Saxe-Cobourg, Prince Leopold 
of, his marriage announced, 
269 ; marries Countess 
Cohaky, 270; a bigamist, 
270-27 1 ; arrives in England, 
272; with his bride, 273; 
death of his wife, 291 ; at the 
funeral, 306; treatment of 
trained nurse, 307 ; treatment 
of Queen Caroline, 375. 

Saxe-Meiningen, Princess of, 
and Duke of Clarence, 320. 

Sellis, servant of the Duke of 
Cumberland, remarks in con- 
nection with his murder, 
145; his letter to B. C. 
Stevenson, Esq., 155. 

Shelbume, Lord, made pre- 
mier, 59. 

Sheridan, Richard Brinsley, 
associate of Mr. Pitt, 60 ; 
advocates assisting Prince 
of Wales, 62; at Prince of 
Wales's marriage, 65; de- 
fends the prince, 69; death 
of, 275; his life, 276. 

Sidmouth, Viscount, title con- 
ferred upon Mr. Addington, 
124; as a member of the 
Cabinet, 124, 127; intro- 
duces a bill for alteration of 
the "Toleration Act," 212; 
appointed secretary of state 
of home department, 218; 
arbiter of fate, 287 ; sends 
circular letter, 289 ; plans of, 
316; and George III.'s 
death, 338; writes a letter, 
345 ; part of correspondence, 
353; as a principal officer, 



355; of a predoui tiio» 

Sbnsy Doctor, iigns a bnllotiiit 


«* Six Acts," introdoGod bj *< Uio 

opproflsoxsy** 560. 

Smith, Benjamin, porter of 
Duke of Cnmberiand; is 
examined as witness in 
^ Sellis " murder case, 162. 

^ain, dupnte witli En^^d, 


Steward, Lord, of MQlan com- 
mission, 311. 

Strickland, Thomas, as under 
butler of the Duke of Cum* 
berland, testifies in *« Sellis ** 
murder trial, 171. 

Sussex, Duke of, is friendly to 
the Princess of Wales, 129. 

Tartuffe, words of, 314. 
Temple, Lord, and me fainting 

Lord Chatham, 45. 
Thackerav, Rev. Doctor, and 

Sir Richard Croft, 316. 
Thelwall, acquittal of, £6. 
« Thirty-nine Articles," the, 


Thistlewood, Arthur, leader of 
the *<Cato Street Conspir- 
acy," 364. 

Thynne, Doctor, medicinal 
rules, 297. 

« Toleration Act," a bill for its 
alteration introduced by 
Lord Sidmouth, 212. 

Tomassia, the Chevalier, 283. 

Tooke, acquittal of, 86. 

Tyrwhitt, Sir Thomas, with 
the <<6ill of Pains and 
Penalties," 380. 

Vansittart, Mr. Nicholas, ap- 
pointed chancellor of ex- 
chequer, and brings forward 

his budget, 2i8{ makes in- 
coirect statements, 273. 

Varley, Sarah, liouseinaid to 
the Duke of Cumberland, 
testifies in the "SelUs^muiw 
der trial, 172, 173. 

Vimercati, Italian agent MHu n 
commWon, 3x1. 

Wakefield, D^ Esq., gives an 
eiposition of uie ^'Jew*' 
d^osidon, fai die •^SelHs'* 
murder trial, 189. 

Wales, Caroline, Princess o^ 
delivered of a daughter, X04 ; 
her di^>oeidon, 105; for- 
mally separated from the 
prince, xo6; interview with 
the queen, 108; is watched 
by a sp^, 128; maliciotts re- 
ports circulated against her 
Dy Lord and Lady Dourias, 
129; death of her faSier, 
130 ; is persecuted bv Queen 
Charlotte and the rrince of 
Wales, 131 ; interviews 1&. 
Whitbread, 222; has a 
stormy interview with the 
Gueeo, 224; rebukes a royal 
duke, 226, 227, 228; vile re- 
ports of her character are cir- 
culated, 232 ; writes a letter 
to the prince, 230 ; death of 
her mother, the Duchess of 
Brunswick, 235 ; another 
letter to the prince, her hus- 
band, 235; gives a party for 
Princess Charlotte, 249 ; ex- 
cluded from drawing-rooms, 
254; prepares to go abroad, 
256; departs for Continent, 
259; persecutions of, 279; 
after Princess Charlotte's 
death, 309 ; removal to Mar- 
seilles, 357. 

Wales, Pnnce of, his dissipa- 
tion, 61 ; political posidon, 
84 ; his debts, 87 ; seeks a 



bride, 90 ; writes a letter to 
Caroline of Brunswick, 91, 
92; treatment of his wife, 
103 ; further dissipation, 104; 
is anxious to rid himself of 
the princess, 1 1 1 ; persecutes 
his wife, 131, 132; refuses 
to pay a just debt, 143 ; re- 
sumes his dissipations, 202 ; 
is api)ointed regent, 203; 
succeeds in getting Princess 
Charlotte*s will from Doc- 
tor Nott, 210; seeks an 
immediate divorce from his 
wife, 221 ; pays a visit to 
Duke of Rutland, 251 ; pro- 
ceedings for divorce, 278. 

Wardle, Mr., prefers serious 
charges against the Duke of 
York, 136. 

Washington, Gen. George, at 
Yorktown, 58. 

Wellington, Lord, and his 
victories, 213; granted one 
hundred thousand pounds 
for legal slaughter, 219; 
created Marquis of Douro 
and duke, 254. 

Whig and Tory ministry 
ejected, 60. 

Whi thread, Mr., as a friend of 
the Princess of Wales, 130; 
makes a statement concern- 
ing the Perigoux and Co. 
bonds, 220; communicates 
with the Princess of Wales, 
222 ; presses her to go to 
Continent, 247 ; urges ad- 
vice, 254 ; fears assassination, 

Wilberforce, Mr., pleads for 
the abolition of West Indian 
slavery, 76; again urges its 

abolition, 82; reads resolu- 
tions, 378 €t seq, 

Wilkes, John, committed to 
Tower, ii; is tried, 13; re- 
turned to Parliament, 19; 
damages awarded to, 24; 
and the printers of Parlia- 
mentary speeches, 30. 

William the Third, law of, 8. 

Wilmot, Doctor, performs mar- 
riage ceremony, 15; and 
Lord North, 23 ; and " Let- 
ters of Junius," 25. 

Windsor Castle, 298. 

Wood, Alderman, relations 
with Queen Caroline, 372, 

York, Edward, Duke of, assists 
at George III.*s marriage, 
3; is married and dies, 

York, Frederick, Duke of, 

birth, 12; his excesses, 76, 
77 ; marries, 81 ; his carriage 
seized, 85; dissipations in 
Germany, 1 10 ; is brought to 
trial, 136; treatment of a 
royal creditor, 144; restored 
to post of commander-in- 
chief of army, 204 ; informs 
the queen of the attentions 
of Doctor Nott to Princess 
Charlotte, 207; as com- 
mander-in-chief, 214; i n- 
formed of death of Princess 
Charlotte, 291 ; at the Prin- 
cess Charlotte*s funeral, 306 ; 
circumstances of death, 
325 ; early life, 328. 329. 
York, Duchess of, her death, 



vn «